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Thursday, July 22, 2010

THORAX, PELVIS, AND EXTREMITIES BONES -LESSON 212

Bones of the Chest (Thorax), Pelvis (Hip), and Extremities (Hand and foot):

Thoracic or Chest Cavity Bones:

Thoracic bones consist of Clavicle, scapula, sternum, and rib bones.  Now we will see about each of these bones one by one.

1.  Clavicle:  The other name of clavicle is collar bone.  This bone is slender in structure.  These bones are two in number and on each side of the body.  Collar bone or clavicle attach the shoulder bone to the breastbone on each side of the body.

2.  Scapula:  This is called as shoulder bone.  This bone is triangular in structure.  Scapula is on each dorsal side of the body.  Acromion is an extension of the scapular bone.  Acromion joins the shoulder to the clavicle.  Acromion means shoulder joint.  (acr/o means joint or extremity and om/o means shoulder).

3.  Sternum:   The other name of the sternum bone is breastbone.  This bone is flat in structure.  Sternum bone is reaching down the midline of the chest.  The peak or topmost region of the breastbone articulates with the rib bones and the collar bone.  This bone also articulates with the inferior and slender segment.  Sternum or breastbone is joined to the abdominal muscles and diaphragm as well. Xiphoid process is the inferior or substandard region of the sternum bone.  Xiph/o means blade or sword.

4.  Rib bones or ribs:  These bones are 24 in number as 12 pairs on each side of the body.  The first 7 pairs of rib bones are called costal cartilages.  The other name of these pairs of rib bones are true ribs.  The 8 to 10 pairs of rib bones are called false ribs.  11 and 12 pairs of ribs are called floating ribs.

True ribs attach with the sternum in front of the body, as well in the back to the vertebral column.  False ribs attach√© with the vertebral column in the hind.  False ribs attach√© with the 7th forward rather than joining to the breastbone, and so they are called false ribs.  The rest of the 11 the and 12 th pairs are just drifting down freely and so they are called floating ribs.

In the next post, we will learn about Hand or Arm bones and Pelvic bones.  Okay.

Come on.

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Sunday, July 11, 2010

The Vertebral Column - LESSON 211

There are totally 26 bone segments compose the vertebral column or spinal column.  We can arrange these 26 bones of the vertebral column in to five divisions, such as
1.  Cervical (7)
2.  Thoracic (12)
3.  Lumbar (5)
4.  Sacral (1)
5.  Coccygeal (1)

Now we will see about these one by one now.  Okay.

1. Cervical (cervix) Vertebral Bones:  These are the first set of bones in the spinal column of 26 bones.  Cervical spine bones are 7 in number.  They are called as C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7. 

2.  Thoracic (thorax) Vertebral Bones:  This bone segment is the second set of the vertebral column.  Thoracic bones are 12 in number.  They are known to be T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, and T12.  These 12 bones attach with 12 pairs of rib bones on both sides.

3.  Lumbar (lumbar) Vertebral Bones:  These bones are 5 in number.  Lumbar bones are the third set of vertebral bones.  These bones are large in structure comparing other sets of bones and stronger than other vertebral bones.  They are called as L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5.

4.  Sacral (sacrum) Vertebral Bones:  This set is four in the vertebral bones.  This bone is 1 in number.  Actually sacral bones are five in number, but they are fused together and looks like one bone.  Sacral bones are separated when one child born, but in the lateral years these five bones got fused into one another and resemble like they are one number.

5.  Coccygeal (coccyx) Vertebral Bone or Tailbone:  This is the final fifth set of the vertebra column.  This bone is 1 in number.   These bones are actually four in number when a child born, but in the later years they fuse to become one bone in structure similar to the sacral bones.  The name of this bone is coccyx bone or tailbone.

Other vertebral bone structures related to the vertebral bones:

1.  Vertebral Body:  Each vertebral bone or vertebra consists of a disk-like region in the inner part.  This is thick in structure and called as vertebral body.

2.  Cartilaginous Disks:  Between each two vertebral bones there is a shock-absorber like or a cushion-like structure called a disk or disc.  These cartilaginous disks give support and elasticity to the vertebral bones when we are in movement.

3.  Vertebral Arch:  In the posterior part of each vertebral bone, there is an arch-like structure that consists of lamina, transverse process, and spinous process.

4.  Neural canal:  This is a space between the vertebral arch and vertebral bodies.  Spinal cord containing nerves from the brain to the lower organs and systems pass though this neural canal only.

This concludes vertebral body anatomy.  In the next lesson, we will learn about Thorax and Pelvis bones.  Okay.

Come on.

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Saturday, July 3, 2010

FACIAL BONES ANATOMY - LESSON 210

Now we will learn about facial bones.  These bones are joined together by sutures. There are specific air cavities called sinuses located in specific spaces within the facial bone and cranial bones.  Sinuses soften the skull and gives humidity to the air passes through these bones.

Nasal bones, vomer, lacrimal bones, zygomatic bones, mandibular bone, and maxillary bones. We will see about each bone one by one now. 

1.  Nasal bones:  Nas/o means nose.  We can say these bones as nose bones.  These bones give support to the nasal bridge.  Nasal bones join with the frontal bone superiorly and form part of the nasal septum.

2.  Vomer:  This is a thin facial bon.  Vomer is single in number.  This bone is flat in structure.  Vomer forms the lower part of the nasal septum.

3.  Lacrimal bones:  These bones are two in number.  Lacrim/o means tear.  Lacrimal bones are situated on each side of the eye at the corner of each eye.  These bones consist of a duct called tear duct or lacrimal duct.  These tear ducts pass through the lacrimal bones.

4.  Zygomatic bones:  These facial bones are two in number.  They are situated on each  side of the face.  These bones make the upper region of the cheek in the face.

5.  Mandibular bone:  Facial bones are firm and immovable.  The only exception is the lower jaw bone or mandible, which is a moveable bone in the face.  By this movement only, we can do the activities, such as chewing of food or mastication and speaking.  Alveoli is a socket formed by the bone of the upper jaw called maxillary bones and the mandibular bone, in which the teeth are embedded.  There is an attachment on either side of the skull called TMJ or temporomandibular joint, which joins the temporal and mandibular bones.

6.  Maxillary bones:  These bones are two in number.  These bones are joined in the median plane. Maxillary bones compose the big upper jaw bones called maxillae (singular maxilla).  Cleft palate is a congenital condition of a baby, in which these two maxillary bones do not come together before birth.

In the next lesson we will learn about the anatomy of the vertebrae and the vertebral column. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...