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Thursday, April 21, 2011

Skin Structure and the Epidermis – Lesson 242

In the last lesson, we have learnt about the function of the skin. In this lesson, we are going to learn about the anatomy and physiology of the skin. Skin consists of three layears from the external surace of the body. The names of these three layers are epidermis, corium, and subcutaneous. In these three layers, the first and foremost outer layer epidermis is a thin cellular membrane, but the other middle layer called corium or dermis is fibrous and dense layer that is made up of connective layer, and the innermost layer of the skin is called subcutaneous, which is thicker than the other two layers and is made up of fat tissue. In this post, we will learn specifically about the outermost layer epidermis. Okay.

Human skin contains nine parts generally. They are

1. Epidermis layer
2. Corium layer or dermis layer
3. Subcutaneous layer
4. Blood vessels
5. Lymph vessels
6. Nerve fibers
7. Hair follicle
8. Sebaceous glands
9. Sweat glands

Skin - Epidermis layer:

This is the outermost layer of the skin, which is made up of a cellular layer externally on the skin. This layer is made up of an epithelium called squamous epithelium. In actual sense, outer skin of the body is wrapped by epithelium. These epithelial cells are normally scaly in nature and flat in shape. These squamous epithelial cells in the external layer of the skin put together in quite a lot of coatings called strata.

As we already know, this layer is deficient of blood or lymphatic vessel contact as in other two layers, but it gets the oxygen and other nourishments from the next layer of the skin called corium through tissue solution. The deepest layer of the epidermis layer is called basal layer and the superficial layer is called stratum corneum and is made up of a protein called keratin. The basal layer is made up of a special kind of cells called melanocytes. We will see the functions of the epidermis in the next post. Okay.

Come on.

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Friday, April 15, 2011

Sweat Glands and Sebaceous Glands - Lesson 241

In this blog post, we are going to deal about integumentary system functions. As we’ve already studied, integumentary system consists of hair, nails, and some glands in it. Apart from protecting the body from outside, skin is also enclosed of two sorts of glands and those glands give off important discharges or secretions.

There are two types of glands under the skin, such as sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The main duty of these sweat glands is to produce dilute water like solution called sweat. Sebaceous glands create a slippery or greasy discharge called sebum. These two skin fluids are passed on to the external brinks of the skin through channels of tiny tube-like structures called ducts and send out from the skin via cavities or minute openings called pores. The liquid sebum makes easier to oil the outside of the skin. The sweat facilitates to cool the body as it disperses from the surface of the skin.

Whenever the body feels excessive heat stimulation from the environment, it kindles the heat centre of the brain and sends impulses from the nerve fibers of the skin from the surface of the body. These nerve impulses from the nerve fibers of the skin cause the blood vessels of the body to dilate and so they bring the blood to the outside of the body, and so allow the sweat glands to produce the watery secretion called sweat.  By this way, excessive heat from the body is carried away and balances the over heat or chillness of the body.

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Monday, April 4, 2011

Functions of the Integumentary System – Lesson 240

Hi all. So far, we’ve discussed about musculoskeletal system anatomy and functions, important medical terminologies and abbreviations.  From this lesson, we are going to deal about integumentary or skin system anatomy and functions i.e. about skin and its partner organs, such as skin glands, nails, and hair.  Integument means an envelope or a wrap or a cover.

The weight of skin in human body is approximately 9 pounds and the length of the skin-covered area in the human body is approximately 20 to 23 square feet. Integumentary system consists not only of skin, but also consists of intricate structure of specialized tissues. Skin also has glands in it and these glands produce a number of solutions.  These fluids along with the nervous system accompanied with the integumentory system regulate the temperature state of human body.

Primarily skin is a shielding membrane on top of the whole human body. It safeguards the profound body organs alongside too much passing away of essential fluids from the body or other important mineral substances.  Skin also protects human body from the heat and also guards against from the attack of disease-producing microorganisms or any other poisonous materials to invade.

In the forthcoming lessons, we will deal about the functions of the skin, structure of the skin, accessory organs of the skin, skin glands, important skin system medical terms, abnormal conditions and diseases of the skin, skin cancer, important skin lab tests and processes, and abbreviations related to skin system.

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Friday, April 1, 2011

Musculoskeletal System Abbreviations - 3- Lesson 239

Hi, free online medical transcription learners, have you enjoyed the free course so far.  I need your timely feedbacks about the quality of the lessons and the quality of the site everyday and then only I can improve myself for your needs. Ok.  In this lesson we are going to learn about the last part of the lesson named Musculoskeletal System Important Abbreviations. As I am stressing you all again and again that you should read the lessons again and again and mug up the important terms and revise it once you complete the lessons of any system. You should also gradually increase your typing speed, the minimum need of words per minute for an average MT is 45. Free transcription dummy files for your practice will be added soon. Shall we continue the lesson? Come on.

The abbreviations we are going to deal in this article are SLE, L1-L5, T1-T12, and TMJ and also their meanings.

1. SLE:  We should expand this abbreviation into systemic lupus erythematosus. This is a systemic autoimmune disease. Due to the consequences of this disease tissue injury and inflammation occur, as the immune system once affected by SLE affects the cells and tissues of the body.  The disease flares up in remissions and also affects many organs in the body such as nerves, urinary system, liver, blood arteries and veins, skin, cardiovascular system, and joints. Corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants are needed to relieve from SLE symptoms. SLE disease occurs mostly in women for about 90% and 10% men.

2. L1-L5: This abbreviation represents five lumbar vertebral bones of the spinal cord.  These five lumbar bones present in between the thoracic and lumbar bones. The special feature of these bones is the nonexistence of foramen transversarium inside the transverse processes and also the facets on the surfaces of the bone body.

3.  T1-T12:  This abbreviated form stands for the twelve vertebral bones of the spinal cord that presents between cervical bones and lumbar bones. The special feature of these bones is they joined with 12 rib bones and so they combine to form the thoracic cage.

4.  TMJ:  This musculoskeletal system abbreviation is signified as temporomandibular joint. This TMJ area attaches the skull bone to the mandible area.

That’s all readers.  From the next lesson, we are going to introduce a new system called Integumentary system or Skin. Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...