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Tuesday, February 2, 2010


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Hi let us know the remaining topic about drugs:
(II) 1. Anticoagulants:- These type of drugs prevents the clotting of blood which are in the conditions such as thrombosis and embolism. Some white blood cells and liver cells produce Heparin which is a natural anticoagulant. They are also used to prevent coagulation in preserved blood used for transfusions. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) dissolves clots and its used to open vessels after myocardial infarction. Here infarction means damage or death and myocardial means heart muscle tissue.
Exs:- 1. Dicumarol (Diabinese)
2. Heparin
3. Sodium warfarin (Coumadin)
4. Plasminogen activator (tPA)
2. Anticonvulsants:- These drugs are used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. These depress abnormal spontaneous activity of the brain arising from areas affecting scar or tumor without affecting normal brain function. Anticonvulsants are often called antilepileptic drugs or antiseizure drugs.
Exs:- 1. Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
2. Phenobarbital
3. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
3. Antidepressants:- These drugs are used to treat symptoms of depression. Many antidepressants are also mild sedatives and treat mild forms of depression associated with anxiety. The term antidepressant is sometimes referred to any therapy
( Psychotherapy, Electro-convulsive therapy, acupuncture) or ( sleep disruption, increased light levels, regular exercise) found to improve appetite and sleep patterns. The most commonly prescribed antidepressants is Prozac (fluoxetine). It works by allowing a neurotransmitter, serotonin, into nerve cells.
Exs:- 1. Amitriptyline (Elavil)
2. Nortriptyline (Pamelon)
3. Paroxetine (Paxil)
4. Antidiabetics:- These drugs are used to treat diabetes mellitus. Patients with type I (insulin-dependent ) diabetes must receive daily injections of insulin. At present most of the insulin is obtained from animals (pork or beef insulin). Recently human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA research (biosynthesis) and this product is used so much.
Patients with type II (non-insulin-dependent ) diabetes are given oral antidiabetic drugs that stimulate the production and release of insulin by the pancreas. Here instead of the drug sulfonylureas, drug metformin is used as an option. It suppresses glucose production in the liver and increase sensitivity in the liver to insulin without stimulating insulin secretion.
An insulin pump is a device strapped to the patient waist that time to time delivered via needle the desired amount of insulin.
Exs:- 1. Insulin
2. Humulin
3. Lietin
4. Lente
Here is the topic about the remaining lesson
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Already we have learnt about the term 'Antibiotics'. In this post we would learn about the different types of Antibiotics
(I)1. Antifungal :- It is the agent that suppress the growth or reproduction of fungi which may be used topically in superficial infections. It may be orally or intravenously in systemic fungal infections.
Ex:- 1. Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
2. Ketoconazole (Nizoral)
3. Fluconazole (Diflucan)
2. Antimalarials:- The drugs used to prevent or treat malaria
Exs:- 1. Chloroquine (Aralen)
2. Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)
3. Antituberculars:- The drugs that are used for killing actively multiplying large bacterial population in a cavity, slow and intermittently multiplying small population in a solid caseous lesion and a slow occasionally multiplying population inside macrophages, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Exs:- 1. Isoniazid (NH)
2. Rifampin (Rifadin)
3. Erythromycin
4. Antivirals:-These drugs are used to treat an infection caused by a virus. They arrest viral replication.
Exs:- 1. Acyclovir (Zovirax),
2. Zidovudine or AZT (Retrovir)
3. Amantadine
4. Ribovirin
5. Ganciclovir
5. Cephalosporins:- A group of antibiotics derived from a fungus that have a wide range of activity against many important bacteria and are useful for treatment of serious infections. The historic classification of Cephalosporins is by generations.
Exs:- 1. Cefaclor (Ceclor)
2. Cephalothin (Keflin)
3. Cephradine (Anspor)
6. Erythromycins and like drugs:- An antibiotic that binds to ribosomal subunits of bacteria and suppress protein synthesis, used in treatment of respiratory infections, and in infections where patient is sensitive to penicillin.
Exs:- 1. Azithramycin
2. Clarithromycin
7. Pencillins:- An antibiotic of beta ring structure produced by the molds pencillium notatum and penicillium chrysogenum. It is bactericidal killing bacteria by interfering with their cell wall synthesis. It acts on both organisms. Pencillinase is capable of inactivating the pencillin. Hypersensitivity forms the most important adverse reaction.
Exs:- 1. Amoxicillin (Amoxin)
2. Ampicillin (Omnipen)
3. Penicillin V potassium (Pen-Vee)
8. Tetracyclines:- An antibiotic which acts against most pathogenic bacteria, rickettsias, chlamydias and mycoplasma.
Exs:- 1. Doxycycline
2. Tetracycline
9. Sulphanamides (Sulfa drugs):- These drugs acts as an anti-inflammatory drugs.
Exs:- 1. Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
2. Sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin)
Hi do you want to learn more information about drugs

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