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Friday, February 24, 2012

Adrenal Glands Function - Lesson 303

Adrenal glands function is the subject matter we are going to study now. In the series of free online medical transcription course, we have dealt about the anatomy of adrenal glands in the prior lesson. Adrenal glands have the outer adrenal cortex and the internal adrenal medulla covers. Both inner and outer covers of adrenal glands secrete different types of hormones and each hormone does its separate functions to maintain important functions of the human body.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones: The hormones secreted by adrenal cortex are called as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are of three types, such as, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sexual hormones in male and female, such as, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We will see about adrenal glands function of the cortex now.

Mineralcorticoids: These hormones are essentially helpful in regulating the amount of electrolytes retaining in the body. Electrolytes are mineral salts. For the normal functioning of the body a good balance of electrolytes and water are very important. 

Aldosterone: This is the main hormone of mineralcorticoids. Adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. Aldosterone helps to expel excessive potassium from the body through kidneys.

Glucocorticoids: These are steroid hormones. These hormones influence metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fat inside the body. They have anti-inflammatory effect. Cortisol is an important hormone of this type. The other name of cortisol is hydrocortisone. This hormone is helpful in increasing the ability of cells to form new carbohydrates from the protein and fat deposits inside the body by a process called as glucogenesis. Cortisol also regulates the amount of sugars, proteins, and fat in the body. Cortisone is another important glucosteroid hormone. This is somewhat resemble the cortisol. Cortisone is helpful in curing inflammations in the body.

Sexual Horomones: Adrenal cortex secretes sex hormones, such as, androgen, estrogen, and progestin both in men and women. Human sexual characteristics, such as, formation of hair in the face and body, growth of breasts, and other reproductive actions. Ovaries in women and testes in men secrete these hormones.

Hormones of Adrenal Medulla:

Adrenal medulla secretes two kinds of hormones. They are commonly known as catacholamines. Catacholamines are of two types, such as epinephrine or adrenaline and norepinephrine or noradrenaline. 

Epinehphrine helps to increase heart rate, dilatation of bronchial tubes, and also helps to increase the production of glucose. Norepinephrine helps to constrict blood vessels and so body blood pressure is controlled. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine play an important role in the nervous system in sympathomimetic actions during stress situations. Our body heart rate, blood pressure, increased heartbeat and increased breathing etc.

We have studies about adrenal glands function now. We will study about pancreas in the next lesson. Okay.



Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Adrenal Glands Function - Lesson 302

We are going to learn about adrenal glands function now.  Adrenal means above kidneys (ad- above, renal - related to kidneys). The another name of adrenal glands is suprarenal glands. Adrenal glands are endocrine glands as they have ducts. The two glands on the left and right of the kidney have different shapes. The right side adrenal gland is normally triangular in shape and the left side adrenal gland is semilunar in shape. While we are in stress situations, adrenal glands secrete hormones, such as, cortisol, catacholamines, and epinephrine. Function of the kidneys are also affected by the secretion of a hormone named as aldosterone by adrenal glands. Aldosterone controls osmolarity of plasma in blood.

Adrenal glands are situated at the retroperitoneal area above kidneys on both sides. Adrenal glands have two different structures. The outer layer of adrenal glandd is adrenal cortex and the inner layer is medulla. Both adrenal cortex and medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal cortex secretes hormones, such as, cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. The medulla secretes two hormones named as epinephrine and norepinephrine. The another name of epinephrine is adrenaline and the another name of norepinephrine is noradrenaline. The average weight of adrenal glands is 8 to 10 grams.

Adrenal Glands (above kidney glands)

The hormones that are secreted by the adrenal cortex are termed as corticosteroids. Corticosteroid hormones are of three types, such as, mineral corticosteroids, glucocorticosteroids, cortisol, and andgrogen, estrogen, and progestin. The adrenal medulla secretes two kinds of hormones named commonly as catacholamines. Catacholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine.

We have learnt something about adrenal glands function. In the next lesson, we will learn about Pancreas. Okay. Come on.

We have learnt something about adrenal glands function. In the next lesson, we will learn more about Adrenal Glands Function. Okay. Come on.

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To go to the prior lesson about Function of The Parathyroid Gland, please visit the following link.

Friday, February 17, 2012

Function of the Parathyroid Gland - Lesson 301

We are going to understand about anatomy of parathyroid and parathyroid gland function in this lesson. Parathyroid glands are four tiny glands that are present in the neck. These small glands produce a hormone known as parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid glands are oval in shape. They are present in the inferior part of thyroid glands on the both sides of the pharynx. In rare cases parathyroid glands are present within thyroid glands and in some patients they are present even in the chest area. The main function of the parathyroid hormone is to control the level of calcium in the blood and in the human bones. In abbreviated form the parathyroid hormone is referred as PTH. The another name parathyroid hormone is parathormone. This hormone helps in the function of moving calcium from the blood into the bones. Calcium is an essential mineral to maintain important body functions.

Functions of the Parathyroid Glands: We get calcium mineral that is necessary for our body's function from the food materials we eat. Calcium consumed from the blood is absorbed in the intestines and transferred into the bloodstream. From the bloodstream, the absorbed calcium is stored inside the bones by parathyroid hormones. By this activity of PTH, our body homeostasis is controlled. Homeostasis is an equilibrium of body's internal environment. 

If human body calcium level decreases due to any diseases in the body, such as, vitamin D deficiency, PTH is secreated by the body in excess and urges bone calcium deposit to release again into the bloodstream. By this way it regulates calcium level in the blood. If body calcium level is increased in the bloodstream then brain orders parathyroid gland to stop its production.

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To go to the prior lesson about Health Abbreviations - Sense Organs -Lesson 300, please visit the following link.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

Health Abbreviations - Sense Organs - Lesson 300

I've missed to add some health abbreviations related to sense organs portions. As a learner of free medical transcription online, you should know about these important abbreviations that are used by physicians in training voice files and live voice files. You should all read and keep all these six abbreviations in your memory.

The abbreviation for right ear is  AD, which means auris dextra. Left ear is  AS, which can be extended as auris sinistra, and to express both ears by the abbreviation AU, which is auris uterque. Left eye is termed as OS, its extension is oculus sinister. Right eye is denoted as OD, which means oculus dexter. Both eyes can be denoted as oculus uterque. HEENT is head, ears, eyes, nose, and throat. HEENT is often used in all medical transcription files in the physical examination area. EENT denotes ears, eyes, nose, and throat. A tube is placed in the eardrum, which is called in short as PE tube, which can be extended as polyethylene ventilating tube.

In the next post, we will learn about parathyroid gland and its functions. Okay. Come on.

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To go to the prior lesson about Thyroid Gland and Hypothyroidism from here, please click the link below.

Sunday, February 5, 2012

Thyroid Gland and Hypothyroidism - Lesson 299

Where is Thyroid Gland?

This lesson will deal with thyroid gland and hypothyroidism and thyroid functions. The biggest endocrine gland in the human body is thyroid gland. It is situated in the neck inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage. Thyroid cartilage forms a prominence in that area named as Adam's apple. Thyroid gland consists of two lobes and isthmus is a bridge like structure that attaches two thyroid glands. Isthmus is situated under the cricoid cartilage. The two lobes of the thyroid gland are situated on both sides of the wind pipe or trachea. Thyroid gland functions as an important endocrine gland in the body. It has no ducts to pass their hormones into bloodstream. Thyroid gland secretes two important hormones, such as, thyroxine or tetraidothyroxine and triiodothyronine. Using iodine thyroid gland produces these hormones. Iodine is captured by thyroid glands from the blood and tyrosine. Thyroxine is much thicker hormone than triiodothyronine.

We will now see about thyroid gland and hypothyroidism. When thyroid gland secretes excess amount of hormones, this abnormal condition is called as hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, if the gland produces less hormones than human body requires normally that condition is called as hypothyroidism. The most common reason for hypothyroidism is deficiency of iodine. Stress is a main symptom associated with hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism is an abnormal condition of less secretion of thyroid hormones from the birth of a child. Other reasons for hypothyroid are may be due to any autoimmune disorders like Hashimoto's thyroiditis. If the thyroid gland is removed due 
to any thyroid cancer would also lead to hypothyroidism.

Functions of Thyroid Gland
The primary funciton of thyroid gland is to produce three hormones, such as, triiodothyronine (T3), calcitonin, and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are essential for body metabolism activity among body cells (T3 and T4). Thyroid hormones help to absorb oxygen by cells. Body metabolic rate is maintained by thyroid glands. Calcitonin controls the level of calcium in the blood and it pulls the excessive calcium in the blood to store in the bones. Thus it restores body's normal calcium level.

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To go to the prior lesson of Endocrine Tissue, please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...