Adrenal glands function is the subject matter we are going to study now. In the series of free online medical transcription course, we have dealt about the anatomy of adrenal glands in the prior lesson. Adrenal glands have the outer adrenal cortex and the internal adrenal medulla covers. Both inner and outer covers of adrenal glands secrete different types of hormones and each hormone does its separate functions to maintain important functions of the human body.
Adrenal Cortex Hormones: The hormones secreted by adrenal cortex are called as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are of three types, such as, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sexual hormones in male and female, such as, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We will see about adrenal glands function of the cortex now.
Mineralcorticoids: These hormones are essentially helpful in regulating the amount of electrolytes retaining in the body. Electrolytes are mineral salts. For the normal functioning of the body a good balance of electrolytes and water are very important.
Aldosterone: This is the main hormone of mineralcorticoids. Adrenal cortex secretes this hormone. Aldosterone helps to expel excessive potassium from the body through kidneys.
Glucocorticoids: These are steroid hormones. These hormones influence metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fat inside the body. They have anti-inflammatory effect. Cortisol is an important hormone of this type. The other name of cortisol is hydrocortisone. This hormone is helpful in increasing the ability of cells to form new carbohydrates from the protein and fat deposits inside the body by a process called as glucogenesis. Cortisol also regulates the amount of sugars, proteins, and fat in the body. Cortisone is another important glucosteroid hormone. This is somewhat resemble the cortisol. Cortisone is helpful in curing inflammations in the body.
Sexual Horomones: Adrenal cortex secretes sex hormones, such as, androgen, estrogen, and progestin both in men and women. Human sexual characteristics, such as, formation of hair in the face and body, growth of breasts, and other reproductive actions. Ovaries in women and testes in men secrete these hormones.
Hormones of Adrenal Medulla:
Adrenal medulla secretes two kinds of hormones. They are commonly known as catacholamines. Catacholamines are of two types, such as epinephrine or adrenaline and norepinephrine or noradrenaline.
Epinehphrine helps to increase heart rate, dilatation of bronchial tubes, and also helps to increase the production of glucose. Norepinephrine helps to constrict blood vessels and so body blood pressure is controlled. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine play an important role in the nervous system in sympathomimetic actions during stress situations. Our body heart rate, blood pressure, increased heartbeat and increased breathing etc.
We have studies about adrenal glands function now. We will study about pancreas in the next lesson. Okay.