Youtube Subscibe Button

Saturday, December 25, 2010

Three types of muscles - Lesson 229

In this post we will learn about the Muscles and its types.
There are three types of muscles in the body which are briefly explained below. They are
1. Smooth muscles:- These muscles are also called involuntary or visceral muscles, are those muscle fibers that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from glands. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. They are so called smooth because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm. Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged in bundles, while smooth muscle forms sheets of fibers as it wraps around tubes and vessels.

2. Striated muscles:- These muscles are also called voluntary or skeletal muscles which are the muscle fibers that move all bones as well as the face and eyes. We have deep or conscious control over the muscles through the central and peripheral nervous system. The fibers also called cells known Striated muscle fibers have a pattern or way of dark and light bands, or fibrils, in their cytoplasm. Fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles is called fascia, which contains the muscles such as blood, lymph, and nerve supply.

3. Cardiac muscle:- This muscle is striated in appearance but like smooth muscle in its auction. Its movement cannot be consciously controlled. The fibers of cardiac muscle are branching fibers and are found in the heart.

Skeletal Muscles actions:- Skeletal or striated muscles which are over 400 in the  human body are the muscles that move bones. When a muscle contracts, one of the bones to which it is joined remains virtually stationary as a result of other muscles that hold it in place. The point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone is called the origin or beginning of that muscle. Whenever the muscle contracts, another bone to which it is attached does move. The point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves is called the insertion of the muscle. The origin of the biceps is at the scapula, and its insertion is at the radius. Tendons are the connective tissue bands that connect muscles to the bones that they move.

Muscles can perform a variety of actions.

In the next post we will come across some of the meanings of the actions and vocabulary terms.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

Home Page:

Wednesday, December 8, 2010


In this post we will learn about the remaining Pathological conditions in the Musculoskeletal system.  Herniation of an intervertebral disc: Abnormal protrusion of a cartilaginous intervertebral  pad into the neuralcanal or spinal nerves. This situation or condition is generally called as “slipped disk” (disc) that presses on the spinal nerves or the cord. Low-back pain, cervical pain, and ‘sciatica’ or radiating pain down to the leg are the symptoms, which depend on the location of the disk. Bed rest, Physical therapy, and drugs for pain  will help in initial treatment. In patients with chronic or recurrent disk herniation, ‘laminectomy,’ which means surgical removal of a portion of the vertebral arch to allow more room for the protruded disk also maybe advised. Spinal fusion of the two vertebrae with removal of the damaged and herniated disk may be necessary as well. Aspiration percutaneous diskectomy is a new technique for removing the disk by inserting a tube through the skin and aspirating the disk through the tube. Chemonucleolysis is an injection of a disk-dissolving enzyme, such as chymopapain into the center of a herniated desk.

Lyme disease: A recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. This is also known as “Lyme arthritis.”  The etiology of the condition is a spirochete or bacterium that is carried by a tick. It was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut, and is now found occurring throughout the eastern coast of the United States. It is treated with antibiotics.

Sprain: Trauma of a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments. These sprains may also indulge or involve damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and nerves. A strain is a less serious injury with exceeding its limit of muscle. Application of ice and elevation of the joint are immediate measures to relieve pain and prevent swelling due to sprains.

Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs. This condition affects connective tissue or specifically a protein component called collagen, such as in tendons, ligaments, bones and cartilages of all over the body. Typically there is a red scaly rash on the face over the nose and cheeks, so that the patient resembles a wolf (lupus means wolf). Patients affected by this condition are usually women and they experience joint pain that is also called polyarthralgia, pyrexia and malaise. SLE is believed to be an autoimmune disease that can be diagnosed by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the bloodstream and characteristic white blood cells called LE cells. Treatment is with corticosteroids, which are the hormones made by the adrenal gland, and used to treat inflammatory conditions.

In the next lesson we will learn about TYPES OF MUSCLES.

In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.

Come on…

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.                                                   

To go to the FIRST lesson from here please click the link below.

Home Page:

Wednesday, November 24, 2010


In this post we will learn some more pathological conditions in the Musculoskeletal system. Rheumatoid arthritis:-  This is a chronic disease in which joints become painful and inflamed. It is believed to be caused by an immune reaction and this reaction is against joint tissues and in which the small joints of the hands and feet are affected first and the larger joints later. Women are generally affected than men. Damaging the articular cartilage and stopping easy movements happen in synovial membranes which become thickened and inflamed. In some of the cases this fibrous forms of tissues calcify creating a bony ankylosis, which is the union or combination at the joint and stopping any movement at all. Swollen and painful joints associations with fever are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Blood test when taken will show the presence of rheumatoid factor of an antibody and x-rays will show persisting changes around the joints which are affected by the disease. The treatment also consists of heat applications and the drugs such as aspirin, cold compounds, and corticosteroids and these drugs are used to reduce and lower both the inflammation and pain.

Bunion:  The sudden swelling or abnormal swelling of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone.  Over the disease area of the foot, a bursa develops often and chronic irritation from ill-shaped shoes that can cause a buildup of soft tissue and the underlying bone.  If the treatment measures like changing the shoes and the intake of anti-inflammatory could not help, then it will lead to bunionectomy.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS):  In this abnormal condition, the nerve it passes between the ligaments, bones, and tendons of the wrist carpal tunnel is affected by the continuous compression on it habitually. The persons are affected by the carpal tunnel syndrome are generally middle-aged women and men.  The symptoms of CTS are pain and burning sensations occur in the fingers and hand. The symptoms in some conditions may occur up to the level of elbow too.  Excessive movement of the wrists, arthritis, hypertrophy, and the swelling of the wrists are the reasons for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Dislocation:  The displacement of replacement of a bone from its joint is called dislocation.  The displaced bones are normally restored to its proper position and immobilizing the joint for healing of the torn ligaments and tendons.  Subluxation is an abnormal condition, in which the bone is partially displaced.

Ganglion:  The development of a cystic mass from a tendon to the wrist is called a ganglion.

In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.

Come on…

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

To go to the FIRST lesson from here please click the link below.

Home Page:

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Muscular Skeletal joints - Pathological conditions - Lesson 226

In this post we will learn some suffixes and their meanings and some Pathological Conditions.    –desis means to bind or to tie together and its terminology is arthrodesis means bones are fixed across the joint space by surgery which is also called artificial ankylosis. This type of operation is conducted when a joint is very painful, chronically infected, or unstable.    –stenosis narrowing means spinal stenosis in which narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine. Symptoms like pain, paresthesias, urinary retention, or incontinence come from compression of the cauda equina which means nerves that spread out from the lower end of the spinal cord like a horse’s tail.

Some of the Pathological conditions are:-

1. For Arthritis inflammation of joints in which some of the common forms are:

a. Ankylosing spondylitis:- Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine. Bilateral sclerosis which means hardening of the sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic feature. Changes in joints are same to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis, and the condition responds to corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

b. Gouty arthritis:- Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
A defect in metabolism of uric acid causes too much of it to accumulate in blood called
Hyperuricemia, joints and soft tissues near joints. The uric acid crystals known as salts destroy the articular cartilage and damage the synovial membrane. A joint mainly affected is the big toe; hence, the condition is often called podagra in which pod/o means foot, -agra means excessive pain. Treatment consists of drugs to lower uric acid production called allopurinol and to prevent inflammation called colchicines and a special diet that avoids foods that are rich in uric acid, such as red meats.

c. Osteoarthritis:- Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces. This condition also known as degenerative joint disease, occurs mainly in the hips and knees of individuals who are older in age and is marked by a narrowing of the joint space due to loss of cartilage. Treatment consists of aspirin and other analgesics to reduce inflammation and pain and physical therapy to loosen impaired joints.

Why does the faith provision the advisory contempt?

In the next post we would learn some more pathological conditions.

To go to the FIRST lesson please click the link below

To go to the prior lesson please click the link below

Home page:

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Muscular Skeletal joints - Vocabulary terms - Lesson 225

     1.      Articulation means joint. 2.  Bursa means sac of fluid at a joint. 3. Ligament means the connective tissue which binds bones to other bones; or supports and strengthens the joint. 4. Suture joint is a type of joint in which opposed surfaces are closely united. 5. Synovial cavity is the space between bones at a synovial joint. 6. Synovial fluid is the viscous fluid within the synovial cavity. Synovial fluid is as same as the viscosity in egg white; or this results for the origin of the term(syn- means like, ov/o means egg).
     7. Synovial joint is a freely movable joint. 8. Synovial membrane is the membrane lining the synovial cavity. 9. Tendon is the connective tissue which binds muscles to bones.

The Combining Forms with their meanings are listed below.
1. ankyl/o means crooked, bent stiff and its terminology is ankylosis which means a fusion of the bones across a joint space by either bony tissue (bony ankylosis) or growth of fibrous tissue(fibrous ankylosis). This immobility and stiffening of the joint most often occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.

2. arthr/o means joint and its terminology is arthroplasty which is the replacement arthroplasty is the replacement of one or both bone by a prosthesis(artificial part) of metal or plastic.
a. arthrotomy means cutting into a joint.
c. Hydrarthrosis means a swelling in the joint commonly in the knee.
d. Periarthritis means inflammation around the shoulder.
e. Hemarthrosis means bleeding into joint spaces.

3. articul/o means joint and its terminology is articular cartilage.

4. burs/o means bursa and its terminology is bursitis in which Ecology may be related the patient stress placed on the bursa or diseases such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis. Involvement becomes limited and painful. Intrabursal injection of corticosteroids as well as rest and splinting of the limb is helpful in treatment.

5. chondr/o means cartilage and its terminology is achondroplasia which is an inherited condition and the bones of the arms and legs fail to grow into normal size owing to a defect in cartilage and bone formation. Dwarfism occurs, with short limbs and a normal sized head and body.

a.       Chondromalacia patellae is a roughening of the inner surface of the kneecap, resulting in pain, a grating sensation, and instability of movement.
6. ligament/o means ligament and its terminology is ligamentous.

7. rheumat/o means watery flow and its terminology is rheumatologist in which various forms of arthritis are marked by collection of fluid in joint spaces.

8. synov/o means synovial membrane and its terminology is synovitis.

9. ten/o means tendon and its terminology is tenorrhaphy and tenosynovitis.

10. tendin/o means tendon and its terminology means tendinitis.

In the next post we would learn some suffixes and their meanings.

To go to the prior lesson click the link below

Sunday, October 31, 2010


In the earlier posts we have already learned about the types of joints like movable joints and immovable joints. Now in this post we would learn some what about immovable joints.

The joining of two or more bones is the articulation or the joint. Some of the immovable joints between the skull bones are the suture joints  A suture is a type of articulation in which the bones that makeup and the bones are close together.  In this suture joint, the union of bones is connected by connective tissue.

Other joints, such as those between the vertebrae, are partially movable joints. Most of the joints however allow considerable movement. Those which are freely movable joints are called as synovial joints. This synovial joint is also called as diarthrosis which is the most movable type of joint in the body of a mammal. Like with other joints mostly, synovial joints gains movement at the meeting of the articulating bones. Examples of the synovial joints are the ball-and-socket type of joint(hip joint; the head of the femur fits into the acetabular fossa of the ilium) and the hinge type(elbow, knee and ankle joints).

Description of the synovial joint:
The vascularized connective tissue which has a lack of basement membrane all are consisted in Synovial tissue and also sterile. The bones in this joint (synovial joint) are separated by a joint capsule. This joint capsule composed of fibrous cartilage tissue and the articular cartilage. Ligaments also called fibrous bands, or sheets, of connective tissue often anchor the bones together around the joint capsule to become strength. The surface of the bones at the joint is covered with a smooth cartilage surface called the articular cartilage.

The synovial cavity membrane lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity between bones. The synovial cavity is filled with a particular and special lubricating fluid produced by the synovial membrane. This synovial fluid consists of water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints, so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal.

Bursae singular bursa are the closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with a synovial membrane and are located near a joint. These are formed in the spaces between tendons which are called connective tissue binding muscles to bones, ligaments which are called connective tissue binding bones to bones and bones. Bursae lubricate these areas where friction would normally develop close to the joint capsule.

In the next post we discuss some of the Vocabulary terms.

To go to the prior lesson please click the link below

To go to the first lesson, please visit the link below

Home Page:

Friday, October 22, 2010


In this post we are going to deal about Pathological Conditions of bone such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and talipes.  

Osteomyelitis is the word from Greek and in which osteon means bone, myelo means marrow and -itis means inflammation. So it can also be called as inflammation of the bone and bone marrow. Bacteria enters the body through the wound and extends from an infection at the bone or come from a skin or infection of the throat. The mostly affected from this Osteomyelitis were the children and this infection usually occurs in the long bones of the legs and the arms. This bacteria can travel into the bone through the bloodstream from another infected areas in the body. This is also called as hematogenous. People suffering from this osteomyelitis feel severe pain in the infected bone, and suffer from fever and chills, feel tired or nauseated or have a feeling of not being well generally. The skin at the top of the infected bone may be sore, red and swollen. The lesion begins as an abscess (inflammation with pus collection). Pus spreads down the medullary cavity and outward to the periosteum. In this situation antibiotic therapy corrects the condition, so that abscess can be prevented or stopped.

Osteoporosis means ‘a disease of bones’ that develops to an increased risk of fracture. It also means the decrease in bone density  or mass, bone becomes weak and thin, that means the bone mineral density(BMD) becomes less.

Osteoporosis condition is also called as Osteopenia, because the interior of bones is diminished in structure, as if the steel skeleton of a building had been rusted and worn down. It commonly occurs in older women as a consequence of estrogen deficiency with menopause.

Estrogen deficiency promotes excessive bone resorption (osteoclast activity) and less bone deposition. Weakened bones are  subjected to fractures, reduction in height and kyphosis occur as vertebrae collapse. The therapy of Estrogen replacement and larger intake of calcium may be helpful for some patients also.

A weight-bearing daily exercise program is also important. It can also occur with atrophy or misuse as in a limb that is in a cast, or in the legs of a paraplegice, or in a bedridden patient. It may also occur in men as part of the aging process and in patients given corticosteroid (harmones made by the adrenal gland and used to treat inflammatory conditions) therapy.

This is also called as Clubfoot which is the congenital deformity of the bones of the foot means that the patient cannot stand with the sole of the foot flat on the ground. The defect can be corrected by orthopedic splinting in the early months of infancy. This clubfoot depends on what classification it is given.

 In this genetic influence increase dramatically with history of family. Growth arrests at roughly 9 weeks and compartment syndrome which is a defect with chromosome. Talipes equinovarus also called TEV was previously assumed that postural TEV could be caused by external influences in the final trimester such as intrauterine compression.

In the next post we would learn about the Types of joints.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

To go to the first lesson from here please click the link below.

Home page:

Saturday, October 16, 2010


In this post we will learn about various bone disease conditions one by one. Okay.  
Osteomalacia:  This is an abnormal condition of bones, in which the bones get soften by means of scarce quantity of calcium and other minerals in the bones.  This condition is primarily happens because of  rickets, a disease condition in childhood.  In this condition, bones not succeed to get sufficient quantities of important minerals like phosphorous and calcium.  As there is lack of essential minerals, bones turn out to be crook easily and become spongy, and so bend.

Exostosis:  It means a condition of bone in which a growth starts to occur on the outside of the bones.  Ex- means out, -ostosis means an abnormal condition of bone.  For example, a bunion is a puffiness or a bump on the big toe especially in the metatarsophalangeal joint in close proximity to the base.  This bunion develops by way of growth of soft tissue and main bone.

Osteogenic sarcoma:  This is an abnormal condition of a bone in which a malignant growth takes place from it.  This is one of the widespread occurrence.  In this condition, the cancerous bone cells called osteoblasts increase lacking having control over and outline huge tumors.

Ewing’s sarcoma:  This type of sarcoma is one type of malignant tumor.  Pain and swelling on the region of Ewing’s sarcoma is a general condition that involved in a bone, especially in the shaft region of the bone, mostly the whole shaft in the medullary cavity.  The people of the age group of 4 to 16 most commonly affect with this type of malignant tumor.  The best treatment for this malignant tumor called Ewing’s sarcoma are chemotherapy and radiotherapy.  But the possibility of cure of the malignant tumor would happen only if the treatment started before the spread of the disease started.

In the next post, we will learn about more bone disease conditions.  Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

To go the first lesson of the course, please click the link below:

Home Page: 

Tuesday, October 12, 2010


In this post, we will learn about musculoskeletal pathological conditions. Okay. Come on.
Human musculoskeletal system consists of bones that form the outline of the human body.  Movement happens in the human body only when bones move with muscles by the reaction of action commands from the nerves from the central nervous system and brain.  Even the bones are tougher comparing other organ systems in the body, they also are affected by many disease conditions like cancers and fractures and other conditions.  In this post, we will see about all types of fractures one by one now.

Fracture happens when one unexpectedly breaks his or her bone due to any intentional or unintentional activities like accident, attacks, falls, or due to thinning of bones due to less calcium in them.  Fractures in the bones are of eight types such as simple fracture or closed fracture, compound or open fracture, pathological fracture, Colles’ fracture, comminuted fracture, compression fracture, greenstick fracture, and impacted fracture.  We will see about one by one now.

1.  Simple fracture or closed fracture:  In this type of fracture, a bone is broken without making any wounds on the skin surface. 

2.  Compound or open fracture:   In this type of fracture, the skin surface shows an open wound due to injury or any other causes with fracture.

3.  Pathologic fracture:  This type of fracture is happened by the weakness of the bones and the other cartilages surround it by any disease condition.

4.  Comminuted fracture:  In this type of fracture the bone is flattened and is fragmented by any causes.

5.  Colles’ fracture:  This fracture happens mainly in the wrists generally at the inferior edge of the radius of the bone.

6.  Compression fracture:  This type of fracture happens generally the vertebral bones.  The bones get compressed into each other in the vertebrae and so fracture of the bones happen.

7.  Greenstick fracture:  In this type of fracture, a bone is incompletely broken and partially curved or crooked on the opposite side after fracture happened.  This looks like a broken greenstick in appearance and so the name was given to this type of fracture.

8.  Impacted fracture:  In this type of fracture, one piece of bone is forced to intimidate in to the other bone.

In the next post we will deal about cancerous conditions of bones. Okay. Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

To go to the first lesson please click the link below.

Home page: 

Tuesday, September 28, 2010


In this post we would learn the remaining terms related to specific bones.

8. fibul/o means fibula or smaller lower leg bone.

9. humer/o means humerus or upper arm bone.

10. ili/o means ilium or upper part of the pelvic bone.

11. isch/o means ischium or posterior part of the pelvic bone.

12. malleol/o means malleolus or the process on each side of the ankle. The medial malleolus is at the bottom of the tibia and the lateral malleolus is at the bottom of the fibula.

13. mandibul/o means mandible or lower jaw bone.

14.  maxilla/o means maxilla or the upper jaw bone.

15. metacarp/o means metacarpals or hand bones.

16. metatars/o means metatarsals or foot bones.

17. olecran/o means olecranon or elbow.

18. patell/a means patella.

19. patell/o means kneecap.

20. pelv/i means pelvis or hip bone.

21. perone/o means fibula.

22. phalang/o means philanges or finger bones.

23. pub/o means pubis or anterior part of the pelvic bone.

24. radi/o means radius or lower armbone-thumb side.

25. scapula/o means radius or lower arm bone-thumb side.

26. stern/o means sternum or breast bone.

27. tars/o means tarsals or ankle bones.

28. tibi/o means tibia or shin bone.

29. uln/o means ulna or lower arm bone-little finger side.

In the next post we will study about the pathological conditions and fractures.


To go to the first lesson please click the link below:

To go to the prior lesson please click the link below:

Friday, September 17, 2010


 Some of the suffixes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM are given below:

1. –blast means embryonic or immature cell. Osteoblast is the cell breaks down bone to remove bone tissue.

2. –clast means to break. Osteoclast means the break down of cell to remove bone tissue.

3. –listhesis means slipping. Spondylolisthesis means forward slipping or subluxation of a vertebra over a lower vertebra.

4. –malacia means softening. Osteomalacia means a condition in which vitamin D deficiency leads to decalcification of bones known as rickets in children.

5. –physis means to grow. Epiphysis and Pubic symphysis are the best examples.

6. –porosis means pore or passage. Osteoporosis means loss of bony tissue and decreased mass of bone. Pathological conditions and fractures.

7. –tome means instrument to cut. Osteotome means surgical chisel which is designed to cut bone.


Let us discuss some of the related terms for the combining forms of some specific bones and their meaning.

1. Acetabul/o means acetabulum. Acetabular is the hip socket.

2. Calcanc/o means calcaneus or heel bone. Calcaneal is one of the tarsal (foot) bones.

3. carp/o means carpals (wrist bones). Carpal is the wrist bone.

4. clavicul/o means clavicle or collar bone. Supra_clavicular in which supra- means above.

5. cost/o means ribs(true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs). Subcostal means part of ribs. Chondrocostal means cartilage that is attached to the ribs.

6. crani/o means cranium or skull bones. Craniotomy means study of skull bones.

7. femor/o means femur or thigh bone.

We will learn about some more combining forms in the next post.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Bladder cancer information

The cancer arises in the urinary bladder because of malevolent development of cancer cell in the urinary bladder.  Atypical cancer cells increase their growth in the bladder irregularly and uncontrollably. The urinary bladder is a concave and brawny organ that stocks up urine.  This type of cancer is known as transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial cell carcinoma.  The signs and symptom of this type of cancer in the urinary bladder is typically bring about blood in the urine.  The bleeding from the urinary bladder in the urine possibly noticeable to the bare eye called gross hematuria.  Sometimes the hematuria may be not noticeable to the bare eye called microscopic hematuria, as they can be seen only under microscope.  Additional likely symptoms of the bladder cancer comprise of pain through urination and recurrent urination called polyuria.  Hematuria and recurrent urination may occur possibly due to inflammation of the urinary bladder too.

The main reason for the bladder cancer is almost in common is smoking.  Smoking tobacco products is mainly the primary reason for the bladder cancer in most cases.  Both woman and men are affecting from smoking result, but men are more prone to this than woman.  Quitting smoking in earlier stages may be helpful in more spread of bladder cancer.

How to diagnose bladder cancer?
Cystoscopy is the first thing to be done to diagnose bladder cancer.  A biopsy is also obtained while doing cystoscopy.  Incidentally bladder cancer is found out in som patients whenever cystoscopy done for other reasons.  Voided urine sample is obtained from the patient and cell study is done to diagnose bladder cancer.  Bladder washing is the method of getting voided urine whenever cystoscopy is done to diagnose the bladder cancer.  In most cases cytology of urine is very precise in diagnosing bladder cancer.  In cystoscopy an flexible and stretchy tube attached to a camera and a variety of tools necessary is inserted into the bladder from the first to last to the urethra.  Doubtful wounds or lacerations inside the bladder perhaps is cut out by biopsy technique and sent it for pathologic analysis.  The pathologist classifies the cancer using the biopsy sample available to him.  Transitional cell carcinoma is the common occurrence of bladder cancer in many cases.  The second most probable conditions of bladder cancer are adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and sarcoma types.

Bladder cancer staging method:  Any cancer in the body can be classified by the staging method called TNM (tumor, lymph node, and metastasis) staging system like T0 N0 M0 or T1 N1 M1.  Ta is a stage of bladder cancer in which stage 0 cancer cells are found in the central lining of the bladder.  The cancer cells in the stage I cancer have flourished to the layer further than the central lining of the urinary bladder than stage 0 cancer.  In the stage II bladder cancer type, the cancer cells have flourished or multiplied to the muscles in the bladder wall that is more deeper than the stage I cancer.  The stage III bladder cancer is deeper than stage II, in which cancer cells have flourished to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder and may also to the prostate gland or vagina, or may even to the uterus.  In the stage IV bladder cancer, the cancer cells have flourished more to the lymph nodes, pelvic and abdominal wall, and/or more to the other nearby organs.

In the next post we will see about bone cancer.  Okay. Come on.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Cancer treatment alternative methods

There are many kinds of alternative treatment methods to treat cancer all over the world.  The conventional alternative cancer treatment methods are of using therapies like chemotherapy, chemoembolization method, radiation therapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.  Even some methods of alternative cancer treatment techniques are costly.  They are useful in lessening the pain and discomfort of the patient.  In many cases, these alternative treatment methods give devastating and overwhelming side effects after it, but they are in no way important in reducing the symptoms of cancer.

Chemotherapy is a conventional method of treating cancer using drugs.  These chemotherapeutic drugs will obliterate and demolish cancer cells by obstructing and slowing down the development and duplication of the cancer cells.  Some chemotherapeutic drugs are Accutane, Mesnex, and PROCRIT.

Chemoembolization is another alternative treatment regimen and that conveys chemotherapeutic drugs in a straight line to a mass or tumor.  The contact or coverage of the treatment regimen drug should be avoided to the other nearby healthy regions of the cancer area.  In this method of treatment, chemotherapeutic drug is directly infused to the cancer area from side to side using a catheter by means of image guidance.  This method of direct application of drugs to the cancer area is used generally to cure colorectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

 Radiation therapy is performed after a resistance testing before that, which will help the physician to determine the right mixture of chemotherapy drugs previous to commence handling treatment to the cancer patient. This resistance test would be of helpful in deciding which drugs will work for the patient and also to lessen needless toxicity and side effects.  This test also helps to initiate the best useful chemotherapy routine for the patient’s needs.  To perform this test, a sample of the tumor is removed and tested against a variety of chemotherapy drugs. If the tumor cells grow in the presence of a drug, there is a high likelihood of resistance to that drug. By testing tissues and drugs outside of the body, we can minimize complications and target cancer cells as aggressively as possible from the start.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC):  This method of treatment is to treat mainly for ovarian and intestinal cancers.  In this method of alternative treatment of cancer, the physician who is doing the surgery eliminates cancer tissues gradually. The main objective of this type of treatment is to have keep only negligible tumor tissue rest in the patient. Subsequent to this alternative cancer treatment, chemotherapy is administered by way of the stomach for about one and half hours. The main objective of this type of chemotherapy is to administer an intense quantity of chemotherapy in a straight line to the cancer affected area in the stomach.  It is particularly noticeable to avoid the contact of other healthy body tissues.

Immunotherapy:  This type of alternative cancer treatment mainly stimulates, augments,  or restrains a particular immune response in the patient’s body.  These therapies are intended to bring out or increase an immune response.  There are two types of immunotherapies, such as activation immunotherapies and suppression immunotherapies.  The former one activates a particular immune response in the body and the second one reduces or suppresses a particular immune response in the body.  Immnomodulators are the vigorous agents of the immunotherapy. 

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Cancer Information you need to know

What is cancer? We all should know about this fatal disease condition.  Most people die after some months or years once cancer affects them.  It affects all sort of social level people. So we must know about cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease, and what will it do for a patient who is affected with it? And how can we define cancer and how it develops? We should understand these questions first to know well about cancer.  Cancer is not a single disease condition like cough or fever, but cancer is of different types somewhat approximately 100 in number.  Will it affect any particular organ or system in our body? No.  It will affect more or less all body organs and systems.  Even the delicate organs like eyes and heart can even be affected by cancer when it spreads to those organs. In total cancer is a fatal disease condition of affecting overall body cells when it affects a patient.

As there are 100 more types of cancerous conditions that affect our body, each kind of cancer is distinctive from the other kinds of cancers with its own sources and signs and symptoms.  The treatments for different cancer types are also different.

We will see now how cancer develops in common.  Each organ in our body is fabricated of cells.  Cells are the building material like bricks for a house.  The cells of the body reproduce and segregate themselves and that makes growth and changes to the body. But, in some abnormal conditions, body cells continue to divide and multiply even when there is no need for growth or any other reasons, in such conditions, these cells accumulate and form a mass development called tumor.

These abnormal growth or development of mass in a particular organ or system can be divided into two types such as malignant tumor and benign tumor.  A malignant tumor is very dangerous as they invade deep inside an organ or system and it cannot be removed easily.  The spread of the cancer called metastasis for the malignant tumor is extensive to the close proximity too.  On the other hand, a benign tumor is not too fatal or dangerous, as they are superficial on the skin layer, and also can easily be removed.

The cancer is named from the origin of its spread, for example when cancer originates from the lung and spreads to the brain, it is simply called lung cancer.  Leukemia is a cancer condition of blood cells (white blood cells), but the cancer may metastasize to the other organs from the blood stream.

Signs and symptoms of each cancerous condition in our body may differ from the other cancer condition.  Generally, cancer patients affect with weight loss, fever, and tiredness.

To go to the first lesson click the link below

Home page:

Saturday, September 4, 2010


In this lesson, we will learn about important musculoskeletal system combining forms. All combining forms are very important to understand the medical terminology well.  As a medical transcription learner, you must know the meaning of all the system combining forms to do the live files once you promoted into production.  Every learner should have one good medical dictionary to know the meaning of each terminology crosschecked.  Each medical word is a combination of one or more combining forms bridging vowel in general the letter 'O' and a suffix or the word end.  In this way, every trainee should try to split each medical word and understand it.

1.  Calc/o means calcium.  Hypocalemia means a disease condition of less calcium in the bones.  Hypercalcemia means an abnormal condition of more calcium in the bones.

2.  Calci/o means calcium.  Decalcification is an abnormal condition of loss of calcium in the bones.

3.  Kyph/o means humpback.  Kyphosis is an abnormal condition of backward curvature of the backbone.

4.  Lamin/o means lamina that is a part of the vertebral arch.  Laminectomy is the surgical removal of vertebral arches in the backbone.

5.  Lord/o means curve anteriorly.  Lordosis is an abnormal condition of anterior curvature of the spinal cord.

6.  Lumb/o means lower back or loins.  Lumbar is pertaining to lower back.

7.  Myel/o means bone marrow.  Myelopoiesis is the process of production of bone marrow.

8.  Orth/o means straight or upright.  Orthopedics the study of musculoskeletal system that helps to make our body straight.

9.  Oste/o means bone.  Osteitis is an abnormal condition of inflammation in the bones.

10.  Scoli/o means bent or crooked.  Scoliosis is an abnormal condition of crook in the spinal cord laterally.

11.  Spondyl/o means vertebra.  Spondylitis is an abnormal condition of inflammation in the spinal bones.

12.  Vertebr/o means vertebra.  Vertebral is pertaining to vertebral bones.

In the next post, we will learn about important musculoskeletal suffixes. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here, please click the link below.

To go to the FIRST lesson from here, please click the link below.

Wednesday, September 1, 2010


In this post we are going to learn about more important musculoskeletal system vocabularies.  You should try to use a medical dictionary to know more about each of these words using diagrams.  This will make your learning process better to create an inner picture of each of these terms inside you permanently.  This will give you more proficiency of medical terms and this will help you to transcribe easily when a dictator dictates these terms in his live file when you start transcription file for training or for job.  This is my own experience.  Please try it out.

 1.  Fossa:  Shallow hole or cavity like opening in a bone.
2.  Haversian canals:  Minute or tiny openings packed with blood vessels found in compact bone.
3.  Malleolus:  Ring-shaped processes on both faces of the ankle joint.
4.  Mastoid process:  Spherical and round-shaped protrusion or bulge on the temporal bone at the back of the ear.
5.  Medullary cavity:  Innermost, middle, burrowing area in the shaft or tunnel of a long bone.
6.  Olecranon:  Large process outwardly appearing on the elbow.
7.  Osseous tissue:  Bone tissue.
8.  Ossification:  Process of bone development.
9.  Osteoblast:  Bone cell that aids to develop bone tissue.
10.  Osteoclast:  Bone cell that takes up and takes away or removes unnecessary or surplus bone tissue.
11.  Periosteum:  Membrane nearby bones.
12.  Phosphorous:  Mineral material originates in bones in blend with calcium.
13.  Pubic symphysis:  Area of union or fusion of the two pubic bones.  Pubic symphyses are united by a piece of fibrocartilage.  Sym- means together –physis means to grow.
14.  Red bon marrow:  This is found in the cancellous bone at the site of hemopoiesis.
15.  Sinus:  A hollow cavity inside a bone.
16.  Styloid process:  Pole-like process on the temporal bone.
17.  Sulcus:  Groove-like depression.
18.  Trabeculae:  Holding up collection of bony fibers in cancellous bone.
19.  Trochanter:  Bulky process beneath the neck of the femur.
20.  Tubercle:  A small and rounded process of a bone.
21.  Tuberosity:  A huge and rounded process of a bone.
22.  Vertebra:  This is the back bone that is made up of vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse processes, lamina, and neural canal.
23.  Xiphoid process:  This is a inferior and narrow portion of the sternum.
24.  Yellow bone marrow:  Fatty tissue found in the diaphysis are of long bones.

In the next post we will start to learn about important musculoskeletal system combining forms and suffixes.  Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

Friday, August 27, 2010


We are learning lucrative American medical transcription course freely here in this blog.  We have crossed three systems yet and we are also going to learn all the other six systems of medical terminologies, anatomy, and physiology, and disease conditions, symptoms and signs one by one later from today onwards.  This post explains about musculoskeletal system vocabularies in one or two line format explanation, no way, this subject should be taught in this way only.  You may use any medical dictionary available online for free or any other good one to know more about these explanations in it.

1.  Fontanelle:  This is a soft spot present between the cranial or skull bones of an infant.  This soft spot is due to incomplete formation of bones in the cranium.

2.  Fissure:  This is an opening between bones.  This opening is a narrow opening.

3.  Facial bones:  These are the bones of the face.  The names of the facial bones are lacrimal, mandible, maxillae, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic.

4.  False ribs:  These are the rib bones of the number 8 to 10.

5.  Epiphysis:  This is the end portion of a long bone.

6.  Epiphyseal plate:  This plate is cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place.
7.  Disk or disc:  This is a rounded, flat, plate-like structure in the vertebral column.  These are between the vertebrae bones.  Each disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance.
8.  Floating bones:  These are the rib bones from the number 11 to 12.

9.  Foramen:  This is an opening in bones where the blood vessels pass.  Wherefrom only nerves enter and leave outside and inside.

10.  Foramen magnum:  This is the opening in the bone of the occipital bone wherefrom the spinal cord passes.

In the next post, we will learn about more musculoskeletal system vocabularies. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here, please click the link below.

To go to the first lesson, please click the link below.

Saturday, August 21, 2010


Now we will see about important musculoskeletal system vocabularies:

1.  Acromion – This is the outward extension of the shoulder bone.  Acromion creates the shoulder tip.

2.  Calcium – The important and major mineral element of the bones.

3.  Cranial bones – The another name for cranial bones are skull bones.  Temporal bone, sphenoid bone, parietal bone, occipital bone, frontal bone, and ethmoid bone are the names of the skull bones.

4.  Articular cartilage – These are the ends of long bones made up of a thin layer of cartilage.

5.  Cancellous bone – This is a porous and trabecular tissue of bones. Cancellous bone is spongy in structure.

6.  Cartilage tissue – This is a flexible and chewy connective tissue.  Cartilage tissue is found on joint surfaces.  This is also found in the embryonic skeleton.

7.  Condyle – This is a knuckle like process.  This structure is present at the end of a bone near the joint.

8.  Acetabulum – This is a socket like rounded structure in the pelvic bone.  In the acetabulum pelvis bone joins with the thigh bone.

9.  Diaphysis – This is long in structure.  This is the middle portion of the bone called shaft.

10.  Compact bone – This is a dense and hard bone tissue.

In the next post, we will learn about more musculoskeletal system vocabularies. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the prior lesson from here, please click the link below.

To go to the first lesson, please click the link below.

The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...