In this post we will learn about the remaining Pathological conditions in the Musculoskeletal system. Herniation of an intervertebral disc: Abnormal protrusion of a cartilaginous intervertebral pad into the neuralcanal or spinal nerves. This situation or condition is generally called as “slipped disk” (disc) that presses on the spinal nerves or the cord. Low-back pain, cervical pain, and ‘sciatica’ or radiating pain down to the leg are the symptoms, which depend on the location of the disk. Bed rest, Physical therapy, and drugs for pain will help in initial treatment. In patients with chronic or recurrent disk herniation, ‘laminectomy,’ which means surgical removal of a portion of the vertebral arch to allow more room for the protruded disk also maybe advised. Spinal fusion of the two vertebrae with removal of the damaged and herniated disk may be necessary as well. Aspiration percutaneous diskectomy is a new technique for removing the disk by inserting a tube through the skin and aspirating the disk through the tube. Chemonucleolysis is an injection of a disk-dissolving enzyme, such as chymopapain into the center of a herniated desk.
Lyme disease: A recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. This is also known as “Lyme arthritis.” The etiology of the condition is a spirochete or bacterium that is carried by a tick. It was first reported in Old Lyme,
Connecticut, and is now found occurring throughout the eastern coast of the . It is treated with antibiotics. United States
Sprain: Trauma of a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments. These sprains may also indulge or involve damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and nerves. A strain is a less serious injury with exceeding its limit of muscle. Application of ice and elevation of the joint are immediate measures to relieve pain and prevent swelling due to sprains.
Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs. This condition affects connective tissue or specifically a protein component called collagen, such as in tendons, ligaments, bones and cartilages of all over the body. Typically there is a red scaly rash on the face over the nose and cheeks, so that the patient resembles a wolf (lupus means wolf). Patients affected by this condition are usually women and they experience joint pain that is also called polyarthralgia, pyrexia and malaise. SLE is believed to be an autoimmune disease that can be diagnosed by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the bloodstream and characteristic white blood cells called LE cells. Treatment is with corticosteroids, which are the hormones made by the adrenal gland, and used to treat inflammatory conditions.
In the next lesson we will learn about TYPES OF MUSCLES.
In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.
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