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Thursday, January 7, 2010


Brachytherapy comprises interstitial therapy and intracavitary therapy. To facilitate delivery of interstitial therapy, a radioactive material for example gold-198, iridium-192 or iodine-125 is put in using a surgery in the surrounding area. The radionuclide is inserted as an element of strands using tiny preserved bud vases or in detachable needles. These stands are called seeds.
In the intracavitary therapy the radioactive source is placed closest to the tumor inside a body cavity. For this process radioactive materials like radium, cesium-137 or phosphorous-32 are used. Uterus, cervix, and vaginal cancers are managed using intracavitary therapy.
Dispensation of radioactive materials into the bloodstream is one more variety of radiotherapy. For this method of radiotherapy iodine-131 is used to treat hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine-131 is dispensed orally in hyperthyroidism and this material mixed with blood and mounts up in the thyroid gland. This material irradiates the tissue in the thyroid and so reduces the activity of the gland. Iodine-131 is also absorbed by thyroid tumors. In treating thyroid carcinoma, iodine-131 is used after partial or total thyroidectomy to inactivate any residual thyroid tissue and to treat metastases.
The unit of radiation dispensation measurement is gray or in short Gy. A gray is equivalent to 100 rad i.e. radiation absorbed dose. Tumors and body tissues are categorized in the same way as radiosensitive and radioresistant as per the number of gray obligatory to kill or injure cells.
Examples of radiosensitive organs are the ovaries and testes. Radioresistant organs are for example pituitary gland and adrenal glands. These glands are disposed to the effects of radiation. Lymphomas are in the main radiosensitive, but sarcomas are by and large radioresistant.
Side Effects of Radiation Therapy:
Radiotherapy even if it perhaps moreover a painkilling or restorative agent is able to create objectionable side effects on customary body tissues that are by the way irradiated. Some of these snags are reversible by the time and recovery takes place almost immediately after the period of radiotherapy is over. These acute reversible effects may include:
1. Mucous membrane ulceration. The another names for this condition is mucositis for example in the pharynx, mouth, vagina, bladder, or small and large intestine. Xerostomia i.e. dryness of mouth takes place after radiation to the mouth or pharynx.
2. Nausea and vomiting as a reaction to radiotherapy to the brain or gastrointestinal organs.
3. Bone marrow suppression or myelosuppression, with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
4. Alopecia i.e. baldness.

With higher does of radiotherapy these impediments can be linked with everlasting organ damage. Besides, radiotherapy delivered in therapeutic doses may produce chronic wound to any body organ that happens to be in or near the path of the radiation beam. Chronic side effects depend on the site of treatment delivery and can include pericarditis, pneumonitis, vasculitis i.e. inflammation of the blood vessels, and fibrosis of the skin and lungs.

In the next lesson we will learn about the important medical terms related to radiology and nuclear medicine. Okay.

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Radiation Therapy:  X-rays and radionuclides are used in the medical field for both detecting disease, as well as curing diseases in the form of therapy. Using large doses of radiation materials via therapy is life-threatening event to the calls of the body those are irradiated.
The specialization of radiation oncology has been chiefly ready to lend a hand as a technique for the handling of cancers. The equipments used for radiation oncology are unlike from those used for detection of diseases. The machines used in radiation therapy bring about rays of many times higher intensity.
Orthovoltage machines deliver low-energy radiation, which in modern treatment centers is used in managing cancers for superficial skin cancers. Megavoltage machines produce high-energy radiation. These megavoltage machines are used to heal more profound tissues. This is curative radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
Betatron and linear accelerator are the two types of radiotherapy equipments. They produce a penetratingly clear radiation rays to a certain area of the body at the same time as cautious superimposing of the surface tissue.
Radiation may be applied to a tumor from some distance (external beam radiation) or implanted within the tumor itself called brachytherapy. External beam machines such as linear accelerator, direct a beam of photons toward the tumor. The higher the energy of the photons, the greater the penetration of the beam. Photons can also be produced from a radioactive source such as cobalt-60, both sources of high-energy photons i.e. linear accelerator and cobalt are well suited for the treatment of deep-seated tumors.

Next lesson is the continuation of radiotherapy. Okay.

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.