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Friday, July 31, 2009


In this lesson we will learn about more urological terminologies.
1. Azot/o means nitrogen
Azotemia is the abnormal condition of nitrogen in the blood. We can find this by a test called BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test of the blood.
2. Albumin/o means albumin.
Albuminemia-abnormal condition of albumin in the blood (albumin is a protein in the blood). In this condition albumin level in the blood is elevated abnormally.
Albumiuria-a condition in which albumin level is elevated in an abnormal level in the urine.
3. Bacteri/o means bacteria.
Bacteriuria-a condition in which more bacterias are present in the urine. It is a condition of infection.

4. Dips/o means thirst

Polydipsia-unnecessary or too much thirst due to diabetes.

5. Ket/o means ketones

Ketosis is a condition in which ketones are present in the urine.

5. Keton/o means ketones

Ketonuria-abnormal condition of ketones in the urine.
Ketoacidosis-abnormal condition of collection of acids in blood cells and tissues.

6. Lith/o means stone

Nephrolithiasis-abnormal condition of formation of stones in the kidneys.
Oliguria- very little urination
Nocturia-night urination

7. -poietin means formation of a substance

Erythropoietin-erythr/o means red. This hormone helps to form red blood cells.

8. Py/o means pus

Pyuria-abnormal condition of pus in the urine.

9. Ur/o means urea or urine

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-this hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland to quell diuresis. Water reabsorption inside the kidney takes place by the action of this hormone.
Diuresis-abnormal condition of undue urination.
Enuresis-an abnormal condition of inability to control urination i.e. bedwetting.
Uremia-abnormal condition of collection of urea in the blood

10. Urin/o means urine

Urinary tract infection (UTI)-abnormal condition of infection in the urinary tract by virus or bacteria.

Urinary incontinence-An abnormal condition of not capable to manage urination.

Stress incontinence-an abnormal condition of tension on the bladder opening while sneezing or coughing.

Urgency incontinence-an abnormal condition of not capable to retain urination when feeling the urge to urinate.

11. -uria means voiding or urination

Hematuria-abnormally blood comes with urine while voiding
Dysuria-abnormal difficulty to urinate
Glycosuria-abnormal condition of excessive sugars in the urine
Anuria-abnormal condition of no urination
Polyuria-abnormal condition of excessive urination

Note: Polyuria, glycosuria, and polydipsia are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

In the next lesson we will learn about Urinalysis. OK.

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In this lesson we will learn about medical terminologist of URINARY SYSTEM.
1. Cyst/o means urinary bladder.
Cystitis-inflammation of urinary bladder.
Cystoscope-process of visual examination of urinary bladder
Cystocele-hernia of the bladder
Cystectomy-surgical excision of urinary bladder

2. Calic/o means calix

Caliceal-pertaining to the calix or calyx.

3. Cali/o means calix

Caliectasis-dilation of calix.

4. Glomerul/o means glomerulus

Glomerular-pertaining to glomerulus. (a mass of capillaries).

Meat/o means meatus or opening.

Meatotomy-surgical opening of urinary meatus.
Meatal stenosis-narrowing of the urinary opening.

6. Nephr/o means kidney

Nephrotomography-visual examination of kidneys
Nephrology-study of kidney and its diseases
Nephrolithotomy-Formation of stones inside the kidney
Nephrosclerosis-hardening of arteries in the kidney
Nephropathy-disease condition of nephrons
Nephrohypertrophy-kidney enlargement
Hydronephrosis-accumulation of water in the kidneys.

7. Pyel/o means renal pelvis

Pyelolithotomy-a surgical opening of renal pelvis to remove the stones.
Pyelogram-radiological examination of renal pelvis.

8. Ren/o means kidney

Renal-pertaining to kidney
Renal transplant-transplantation of affected kidney with a donor's kidney.
Renal calculus-kidney stone
Renal dialysis-filtration of kidneys using a machine

9. Trigon/o means trigone

Trigonitis-inflammation of the trigone

10. Urethr/o means urethra

Urethral-pertaining to urethra
Urethritis-inflammation of urethra
Urethroplasty-surgical procedure to repair urethra

11. Vesic/o means urinary bladder

Vesicourethral reflex-backflow of urine from the bladder to ureter
Perivesical-around the urinary bladder

In the next lesson we will learn about more urinary system medical terminologies. OK.

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This post is the continuation of the lesson 76
17. Hilum-a hole in the ground part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves go into and go away. A pit in the kidney where from blood vessels exit and enter.
18. Kidney-bean-shaped organ located behind each side of left and right the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone, which is two in number and in the lumbar region (retroperitoneal area).
19. Meatus-canal or opening.
20. Micturition-act of urination (voiding)
21. Medulla-inner region of the kidney
22. Medullary-pertaining to the medulla.

23. Nitrogenous wastes-the chemical waste excreted in the urine that contains nirogen.

24. Renal pelvis-innermost compilation area of the kidney.

25. Renal artery-carrier of blood to the kidney.

26. Renal tubules-microscopic tube like structures inside the kidney where urine is created. Reabsorption also takes place here only.

27. Renal vein-carrier of blood away to the kidney.

28. Renin-a hormone secreted by kidney, which raises blood pressure by narrowing the blood vessels.

29. Trigone-ureters enter and the urethra ways out in this triangular area in the bladder.

30. Uric acid-nitrogenous waste emitted in the urine.

31. Urea-most important nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.

32. Urethra-a small tube leads from the bladder to the urinary meatus.

33. Ureters-two tubes show the way from the kidney to the bladder

34. Urinary bladder-a pouch like structure that grasp urine.

35. Voiding-micturition or urine coming out.

In the next lesson we will learn about urinary system medical terminologies. OK.

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


In this lesson we will learn about the important Urinary system words and its meanings.
1. Aorta-a big blood vessel
2. Artery-asmaller branches of aorta
3. Aretriole-a smaller artery (a branch of artery)
4 Bowman's capsule-A goblet-shaped capsule enclosing each glomerulus
5. Calix or calyx (singular)-A cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis.
6. Calices-pleural word for calix or calyx
7. Catheter-a tube used for removing or injecting fluids.

8. Cortex-superficial or external region

9. Renal Cortex- superficial or external region of the kidney

10. Cortical-pertaining to the cortex

11. Creatinine-a nitrogenous waste sent out in urine i.e. devastation product of muscle metabolism.

12. Electrolyte-a chemical substance that carries electrical charge in a liquid

13. Erythropoietin-a hormone produced by the kidney to fire up the production or red blood cells (RBCs).

14. Filtration-a process of the kidney in which substances like sugars, salts, water (also nitrogenous wastes like creatinine and urea) are filtered from the blood and excreted out as urine. But important salts and water are not fully excreted out but in a very minute amount only, the rest of the salts and water, sugar retain again into the blood.

15. Glomerulus-minute capillaries are intertwined and resembles like a ball in the cortex of the kidney. (capillaries are minute blood vessels).

16. Glomeruli-pleural form of glomerulus.

17. Hilum-a hole in the ground part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves go into and go away. A pit in the kidney where from blood vessels exit and enter.

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Thursday, July 30, 2009


In this lesson we will see normal composition of urine chemical composition.
1. Color of the urine: Slightly yellow or straw colored.
2. Quantity of the urine: Normally is 1000 to 1500 ml/24 hours.
3. Specific gravity of the urine: 1.008 to 1.030.
4. pH value: 5.5 to 6.5.
5. Sugar: 0.015% (total sugar per day 7.20 gm/24 hours)
6. Nitrogen and amino acids: 0.15-0.30 gm/24 hours
7. Urea: 12 gm to 35 gm in 24 hours
8. Ammonia: 0.6 gm to 1.2 gm in 24 hours
9. Creatinine: 0.8 gm to 2.0 gm in 24 hours
10. Uric acid: 0.3 gm to 0.8 gm in 24 hours
11. Hippuric acid: 0.7 gm in 24 hours
12. Chlorides: 10 gm to 15 gm in 24 hours
13. Phosphorus: 1.2 gm in 24 hours
14. Sulphur: 1 gm in 24 hours
15. Ethereal: 0.1 gm in 24 hours
16. Sodium: 2.5 gm to 4 gm in 24 hours
17. Calcium: 0.1 gm to 0.3 gm in 24 hours
18. Potassium: 1.5 gm to 2.0 gm in 24 hours
19. Magnesium: 0.1 gm to 0.2 gm

In the next post we will see more about Urinary System suffixes and prefixes and its meanings. ok

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In this lesson we will see about the process of filtration of kidneys.  Kidneys manufacture urine by a process called filtration. Each microscopic glomerulus wall is thin enough to allow water, sugar, salt, urea, and other nitrogenous wastes like uric acid and creatinine to go away the bloodstream. These materials going away from each glomerulus are accumulated in a minuscule cup-like structure called Bowman's capsule, which encloses each glomerulus. The walls of the glomeruli check large substances like proteins and blood cells from filtering into the Bowman's capsules. These substances stay behind in the blood and normally do not come into view in urine.

Renal tubule is a long twisted tube attached to the Bowman's capsule. These tubules are covered by tiny capillaries. When the water, sugar, urea, salts and other nitrogenous wastes pass through these renal tubules, all of the sugar and most of the water and some salts go again to the bloodstream. This process is called re-absorption.

Through this process only vital materials like sugar, salts, water, and acids retain into the body. Some salts, acids, sugar, and water remain in the renal tubule after this process. The remaining material in the renal tubule called urine now contains 95% of water, 5% urea, creatinine, salts, and acids. These renal tubules are combined in a larger collecting tubule, and thousands of these collecting tubules show the way to the renal pelvis, a reservoir in the central area of the kidney. Calices (singular-calix or calyx) are the small, cup-like sections of the renal pelvis.

The renal pelvis tapered into the ureter. The ureter carries the urine to the urinary bladder where the urine is for the short term stored. The outlet area of the bladder is closed by sphincters that allow the urine to run off the bladder. When the bladder fills up, a pressure is situated on the bottom of the urethra, so that only we feel to urinate.

In the next lesson we will see the normal composition of chemicals of urine. ok

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In this lesson we will learn about production of urine by urinary system.  The process of production of urine starts from the blood entry to the kidney. Blood enters into each kidney from two arteries such as the right and left renal arteries (both arteries in combination called aorta). The blood enters into the kidneys through the renal arteries through the hilum a depression inside the core of the kidney and the arteries branch into smaller and smaller arteries. The smallest arteries are called arterioles. These are situated all the way through the cortex.

Blood constantly move across these small arterioles. This flow is very crucial. Kidneys have their own special device to maintain this blood flow consistently. If blood pressure falls, the flow of blood is diminished. Kidney produces a hormone called renin and released it into the blood. This hormone stimulates the narrowing or contraction of arterioles and so blood pressure increased and blood flow in the kidneys is reinstated to customary.

Capillaries are the smaller blood vessels that are twisted and interlinked branches from each arteriole in the cortex of the kidney. The capillaries in collection form a small ball like structure called glomerulus. There are about one million glomeruli (singular-glomerulus) in the cortex of each kidney.

That's all...

In the next lesson we will learn about the process of filtration by kidneys..ok

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ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM:  Urinary system anatomy organs consists of Kidneys (two), Ureters (two), Urinary Bladder, and Urethra.
KIDNEYS:  Two bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity i.e. retroperitoneal area, which is on moreover side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region of the spine. The kidneys are fixed and set in a cushion of adipose tissue and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue for safeguard. The size of each kidney is fist-sized approximately and about 4 to 6 ounces of weight of each.

The kidneys consist of an outer cortex region (cortex means outer portion or bark or a tree) and an inner medulla region (medulla means core or inner portion). Hilum is a depression in each kidney on the medial margin of the kidney through which only blood vessels and nerves pass.


Each kidney has on long about 16 to 18 cm muscular tubes lined with mucous membrane. The put across the urine in peristaltic waves from the kidney to the urinary bladder.


This is a hollow, muscular, distensible pouch or bag like structure in the pelvic cavity. It works as a short-term pool or reservoir for urine. The Trigone is a triangular space at the base of the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra shows the way out.

A membranous tube through which urine is released from the urinary bladder. The course of action of pushing out urine is called voiding through the urethra is called micturition. The external opening of the urethra is called the urethral or urinary meatus. There are some differences between male urethra and female urethra. In female, the urethra is roughly 1 ½ inches in length, positioning anterior to the vagina and vaginal meatus. The male urethra is about 8 inches long and extends downward through the prostate meatus at the top of the penis.
In the next post we will learn how the kidneys produce urine...ok
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Tuesday, July 28, 2009


In this page we will see important function of the kidneys in our body. Removal of Urine:  Simple proteins are called amino acids are broken down to form urea in the liver from ammonia. The urea thus formed is brought into the bloodstream. From the bloodstream the nitrogenous waste in the form of urea is carried to the two kidneys. The urea is passed out of the kidney with water, salts, and acids. This is called urine. Urine then passes down to the two ureters (two tube like structure from kidney) to the bladder (a sac like structure) and then to the urethra (a small opening outside the body) and then passed outside of the body. Thus the urea formed in the body is removed from the body.

Electrolytes Balance:  Kidneys apart from removing urea from the blood, they also preserve the appropriate equilibrium of water, salts, and acids inside the body. Potassium, sodium, and some acids are called electrolytes. Electrolytes are the small molecules that conduct an electrical charge are essentially needed for the good function of muscle and nerve cells. The kidneys fine-tune the quantities of water and electrolytes by secreting some materials into the urine and suppress others into the bloodstream for the use in the body.

Endocrine Function of the Kidneys: Kidneys secrete two important hormones such as renin and erythropoietin into the blood. Renin is useful in the control of blood pressure. Erythropoietin (erythr/o means red, poietin means substance that forms) is a hormone that normalizes the production of RBCs or red blood cells. Thus kidneys perform exocrine function in the body. (exocrine means ductless). Vitamin D is also secreted by kidneys that is important for the calcium absorption from the intestine. Insulin and parathyroid hormone are removed and decomposed from the bloodstream by the kidneys.

Keywords: Urinary, kidneys, sugars and fats, proteins, urea, urine, urethra, ureters, electrolytes, nitrogenous, oxygen, carbon-di-oxide

In the above lesson we have seen about the functions of the kidney in general. In the next lesson we will see the anatomy of major organs of the URINARY SYSTEM. OK.

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We have learned so far about gastrointestinal (GI) system so far. In the coming posts we will learn about URINARY SYSTEM. Ok.  The contents of this system consists of:
1. Urinary system anatomy.
2. Urine production
3. Structure of urinary system
4. Urinalysis
5. Urinary system-Pathology (Kidneys, Bladder, and other organs)
6. Lab tests and procedures
7. Abbreviations

We will see each subject one by one now…come on.



How food waste particles are removed from our body?

Catabolism is a process of production of energy in the cells by the combination of oxygen and food. In this process neither the food or oxygen is not devastated. As an alternative, the small particles of food and oxygen are reorganized into new mishmash. These blend of amalgamation are ravage foodstuffs (sugars and fats and proteins). Food stuffs created in our body are of two mixtures:

1. Foods with Sugars and Fats
2. Protein Foods

Foods with Sugars and Fats:

When foods like sugars and fats mostly they are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They intermix with oxygen in cells. The wastes produced are gases called carbon dioxide, a mixture of carbon and oxygen and hydrogen and oxygen. This is in the form of vapor (gas and water). These waste gases are removed from the body by exhalation process of breathing through the nostrils by the lungs.

Protein Foods:

The foodstuffs that contain protein are not simple material like sugars and fat, but proteins particles are complicated. These dense food particles contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, as well as nitrogen and other rudiments. The ravage or waste produced when protein mixed with oxygen. This is called nitrogenous waste. It is more difficult to send out of the body than food particles with sugars and fats as carbon-di-oxide and water through the breathing process.

The body cannot capably excrete the nitrogenous waste as it cannot change it as a gas and vapor as like other food materials. But the nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form a soluble (dissolved in water) known as urea. The primary function of the URINARY SYSTEM is to eliminate urea formed in the bloodstream, in order that it does not accrue or collect in the body and become contaminated or poisonous toxic materials. Kidneys are organs remove these materials outside the body in the form of urine.

Keywords: Urinary, kidneys, sugars and fats, proteins, urea, urine, urethra, ureters, electrolytes, nitrogenous, oxygen, carbon-di-oxide

The next post continues this lesson. Okay.

In the next lesson we will learn more about URINARY SYSTEM.

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Thursday, July 9, 2009


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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...