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Tuesday, July 30, 2013

Adverb - Parts of Speech



What is adverb?

Adverb is a part of speech in a sentence that strengthens the action of a verb (action). It will come next to the noun always.

How can we identify an ADVERB in a sentence?

As an adverb increases the action of an action in a sentence, it should describe to the interrogative questions such as HOW (HOW much, HOW often, HOW long, and HOW far), WHEN, and WHERE. The particular word that gives answer to that question in a sentence is ADVERB.

Examples:

1. Private buses in our country travel SWIFT.  (buses travel HOW?).
2. Do your home work FAST. (do the home work HOW?)
3. Devi and Ramu have been loving each other since their CHILDHOOD. (they love HOW long)
4. Ambani is the RICHEST man. (HOW is he)
5. News comes EVERY ONE HOUR in this channel.  (news come HOW often)

Usage of “THERE” as an adverb:

There introduces a subject in a sentence temporarily. This works as a temporary subject in a sentence. When we use there with a subject in a sentence, it works a temporary subject.

1. THERE were great poets in Europe once upon a time.
2. THERE is only one brave man in the story that is Alexander.
3. THERE are many car achievers in the multilevel marketing scheme in our city.

Note:

1. Sometimes a noun or an adjective can also be used as an ADVERB. These are the words that questions a sentence of HOW, WHEN, and WHERE.
2. Any part of speech in a sentence can be used as ADVERBS.
3. Among single word adverbs there are also adverb phrases and clauses.

In the next lesson, we will learn more about adverb phrases and clauses, okay

Come on…

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Friday, July 26, 2013

Parts of Speech - Adjectives 2

THREE DEGREES OF ADJECTIVE:

1. POSITIVE DEGREE:

Simple adjectives are all in the state of positive degree because they do the job of only describing about the noun simply.

For example:

1. Varalakshmi is TALL girl.
2. David is a BRIGHT student in the class.
3. Our house is a SMALL one.
4. Maradona was SHORT football player.
5. Cleopatra had been a BEAUTIFUL woman.
6. He is such an UGLY boy.
7. THAT question paper is very difficult (demonstrative pronoun as an adjective).

In the above sentences Tall, Bright, Small, Short, Little, Beautiful, Ugly, That are used in POSITIVE DEGREE. The adjectives just describes the noun.

2. COMPARATIVE DEGREE:

In this degree we use adjective to describe a noun and comparing any two persons or things or to compare one thing with other things those are more than two.

We take the above positive degree adjectives to describe comparative degree.

Varalakshmi is TALL girl comparing other student Vani in the class. So we can say this sentence as,

COMPARING TWO THINGS or PERSONS:

1. Varalakshmi is TALLER THAN Vani.
2. David is BRIGHTER THAN Ramana in the class.
3. Our house is SMALLER THAN our neighbor’s house.
4. Cleopatra is MORE BEAUTIFUL woman THAN Elizabeth Taylor.
5. He is UGLIER THAN her.
6. THAT question paper is MORE DIFFICULT THAN last year.

COMPARING ONE PERSON or THING with OTHER PERSON or THINGS more than two.

1. Varalakshmi is AS TALL AS other students in the class.
2. David is AS BRIGHT AS other students in the class.
3. Our hour is AS SMALL AS other houses in the colony.
4. Cleopatra was AS BEAUTIFUL AS other beautiful woman of her time in the world.

3. SUPERLATIVE DEGREE:

When we describe the best thing or person in sentence, we should use SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. We can use SUPERLATIVE DEGREE to describe the noun of that sentence.

See the examples

1. Varalakshmi is THE TALLEST in the class.
2. David is THE BRIGHTEST student in the class.
3. Our house is THE SMALLEST one in the colony.
4. Cleopatra was THE MOST BEAUTIFUL of her time in the world.

Note:

1. Add –IER to the adjectives to make it comparative in most of the adjectives (formula ADJECTIVE + IER)

2. If the adjective is more than five letters, we can add MORE to the adjectives to make it comparative adjective (MORE + ADJECTIVE)

3. Add MOST to the adjective to make it superlative MOST + ADJECTIVE

4. Some adjectives can be used without using the formulas, and can be used as it is.

In the next lesson we will learn about another part of speech ADVERB..ok
Come on...

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Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Parts of Speech - Adjective

In the series of PARTS OF SPEECH now we are going to learn about two of the parts of speech called ADJECTIVE.

What is an ADJECTIVE?

A word that describes about the noun in a sentence is adjective. It takes place generally in the left side of a noun.

A pronoun cannot be used with an adjective.

Examples:

James is a good singer.

In the above sentence GOOD is an adjective, which describes about the noun James.

See more examples.

That temple is very powerful. THAT is adjective because it describes about a temple. We all know that all temples are powerful, but here THAT describes a particular temple as a powerful one. So THAT a demonstrative pronoun here plays the role of an adjective. We can use demonstrative pronoun as an adjective.

See another example.

All politicians are not honest in our country. (HONEST describes the noun all politicians).

See more examples:

1. John has been a tremendous scientist since 1980. (tremendous describes about John’s (noun) knowledge)
2. Ismail can write a beautiful poems. (beautiful describes about Ismail’s (noun) poetry skill).
3. Can you win this important match? (important describes about the match (noun)).
4. This is his great achievement in cricket. (this describes about the noun one’s achievement).
5. Such a wonderful person Lakshmi is. (Such is the adjective describes the noun Lakshmi).

Note: The demonstrative pronouns such as THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE, and SUCH can also be used as adjectives as well as pronouns.

We can use adjective in three degrees. They are POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE, and SUPERLATIVE.
In the next lesson we will see more about adjectives..ok

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Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Know About Cancer...!

What is cancer? We all should know about this fatal disease condition.  Most people die after some months or years once cancer affects them.  It affects all sort of social level people. So we must know about cancer. Cancer is a deadly disease, and what will it do for a patient who is affected with it? And how can we define cancer and how it develops?  We should understand these questions first to know well about cancer.  Cancer is not a single disease condition like cough or fever, but cancer is of different types somewhat approximately 100 in number.  Will it affect any particular organ or system in our body? No.  It will affect more or less all body organs and systems.  Even the delicate organs like eyes and heart can even be affected by cancer when it spreads to those organs. In total cancer is a fatal disease condition of affecting overall body cells when it affects a patient.

As there are 100 more types of cancerous conditions that affect our body, each kind of cancer is distinctive from the other kinds of cancers with its own sources and signs and symptoms.  The treatments for different cancer types are also different.

We will see now how cancer develops in common.  Each organ in our body is fabricated of cells.  Cells are the building material like bricks for a house.  The cells of the body reproduce and segregate themselves and that makes growth and changes to the body.  But, in some abnormal conditions, body cells continue to divide and multiply even when there is no need for growth or any other reasons, in such conditions, these cells accumulate and form a mass development called tumor. 

These abnormal growth or development of mass in a particular organ or system can be divided into two types such as malignant tumor and benign tumor.  A malignant tumor is very dangerous as they invade deep inside an organ or system and it cannot be removed easily.  The spread of the cancer called metastasis for the malignant tumor is extensive to the close proximity too.  On the other hand, a benign tumor is not too fatal or dangerous, as they are superficial on the skin layer, and also can easily be removed. 

The cancer is named from the origin of its spread, for example when cancer originates from the lung and spreads to the brain, it is simply called lung cancer.  Leukemia is a cancer condition of blood cells (white blood cells), but the cancer may metastasize to the other organs from the blood stream.

Signs and symptoms of each cancerous condition in our body may differ from the other cancer condition.  Generally, cancer patients affect with weight loss, fever, and tiredness.

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Monday, July 22, 2013

Parts of Speech - Verb and Auxiliary Verb

VERB:

Every human being is doing some actions in the world always. These actions may happen in the past, present, or future. So we can define a verb as a word of any ACTION done by any human being. For example, GO, COME, TAKE, BATH, SEE. These words denote an action of a human being.

Based on the time of action a verb can be classified as three such as PAST, PRESENT, and FUTURE.

We will learn more about each of these in detail.

AUXILIARIES AND AUXILIARY VERBS:
Auxiliary verb is a word helping a verb. A verb cannot be separated from verb. Only one auxiliary can help at a time to a verb.

List of Auxiliary verbs:

Everyone is learning English grammar must memorize these auxiliaries like a song lines.

IS, AM, WAS, HAS, HAVE, HAD, DO, DOES, DID, BE, BEEN, BEING, ARE, WERE, CAN, COULD, SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, NEED, KEEP, KEPT, USED TO, OUGHT TO, GOING TO, DARE, NEVER

As we already explained a verb cannot stand lonely, one auxiliary must come with it like a marriage couple.

Auxiliary and auxiliary verbs:
There are 31 auxiliaries in English language. In the above 31 these 11 auxiliaries work as auxiliary and also as
auxiliary verbs. Those are IS, AM, WAS, ARE, WERE, DID, HAS, HAVE, HAD, DO, DOES, DID. These auxiliaries can support a verb in a sentence, and also stand lonely in a sentence to act as auxiliary verb. We can use auxiliaries in a sentence even without using a verb. These are self-supporting verbs.

Examples:

I AM a boy.
He IS an engineer.
They WERE culprits.
We DID that project.

But,
BE, BEEN, CAN, COULD, SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST, NEED, KEEP, KEPT, USED TO, OUGHT TO, GOING TO, DARE, NEVER are the auxiliaries cannot stand separately without a verb.

Examples:

We HAVE BEEN working for this project.
I CAN win the singles match.
They WOULD reach the target soon.

We cannot use NEVER only as an auxiliary verb as this does not support any verb. Then why NEVER is in this 31 auxiliary list? Because NEVER can be used in place of NOT. NOT is used to denote negative auxiliaries. NEVER is stronger than NOT that is why we have added NEVER as an auxiliary even if it cannot support a verb as an auxiliary.

Examples:

He will NEVER win the match.
I have NEVER told that word.
We NEVER talk against truth.

In all these 31 only three auxiliaries can be used as three-in-one i.e. they can be used as verb or just an auxiliary or an auxiliary verb. Those three are HAVE, BE, DO.

Examples:
I DO like him (as an auxiliary with the verb-LIKE)
I DO it (as an verb separately)
BE a kind man. (separately as a verb)
This will BE given (as an auxiliary verb)
Did you HAVE dinner? (as an auxiliary verb)
I HAVE one dog as my pet (as a verb)

This lesson concludes verb and auxiliaries, in the next lesson we will learn about what is an ADJECTIVE….Okay.

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Sunday, July 21, 2013

Parts of Speech - Types of Pronouns

One should differentiate which is subjective pronoun and which is objective pronoun based on the usage of the pronouns. Pronouns are of five types.

1. Possessive pronouns
2. Demonstrative pronouns
3. Distributive pronouns
4. Reciprocal pronouns
5. Indefinite pronouns

1. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: The possessive pronoun can be indicated by a sign (‘) and a letter ‘s’ to a noun. The examples are given below:

Examples:
Singular Nouns can be expressed like this,
David’s car (his car)
Lakshmi’s bed (her bed)
The Car’s light (its light)
Pleural Nouns can be expressed like this,
The children’s toys (their toys)
Daniel’ bike (his bike)
Boys’ hostel (their hostel)
Girls’ bus (their bus)

See the two sentences below.

This is her watch.
This watch is hers.
The second one the effective one.

2. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS: This type of pronoun is used to point at a certain object like we use our index finger to point at something. We may use demonstrative pronouns either in subject part and also in objective part. The demonstrative pronouns are given below:

a. THIS and THAT for singular noun.

b. THESE, THOSE, and SUCH for pleural noun.

Examples:
Demonstrative pronouns in the subject part:
This is my car.
That is her classroom.
These are my friends.
Those are our properties.
Such is our fate.

Demonstrative pronouns in the object part:

This book of that author is like that of his previous one. (that replaces the book in the object part)
The cinema theatres in New York are bigger than those of Washington (those replaces the word theatres)
If a noun comes after a demonstrative pronoun, the pronoun would be doing the work of an adjective.

Examples:
a. That computer is mine.
b. This boy is my classmate.
c. These apples belong to Kashmir.
d. Those movie CDs are from Hollywood.

In the above examples pronouns are used as adjectives.
e. Some movies are very bad. Neglect such movies.
In this sentence such is adjective.

4. DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS: These refer to persons or things taken at one time. These pronouns are given below:

EACH
EITHER
NEITHER

EACH-refers to everyone of a number of persons or things in single.
EITHER-refers to the one or the other two persons or things.
NEITHER-refers to not the one and not the other of two.

Examples:

a. EACH of the computer costs 35,000.
b. The students won the match received $1000 EACH.
c. EITHER of you can win the match.
d. NEITHER can win the Oscar this year.

Either and neither can be used in a sentence when we spoke about two persons or things. But in the situation of speaking more than two, we should use

ANY
NO ONE or NONE
a. ANY one can win the match from our country.
b. NONE can help him in this hard situation from his friends.

When we use NEITHER or EITHER in a sentence, a singular verb will follow these pronouns.

4. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: These pronouns are also called as COMPOUND PRONOUNS. They are given below:

EACH OTHER
ONE ANOTHER

Examples:

They both love EACH OTHER.
The family members quarrel EACH OTHER.
The business partners encouraged EACH OTHER.

We should consider one rule here that is EACH and ONE should be used in the subject, as well as OTHER and ANOTHER should be used in the object part of a sentence when we use reciprocal pronouns. So we should write the above sentences like this only.

EACH of them love OTHER.
EACH member in the family is quarrelling OTHER.
EACH of the business partner is encouraged OTHER.

These sentences are practically we combine the subjective and objective pronoun as a compound or reciprocal pronoun and change them as follows:

They both love EACH OTHER.
The family members quarrelling EACH OTHER.
The business partners encouraged EACH OTHER.
In the next lesson we will see about VERB..Okay.




5. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: We can use this type of pronouns to refer to persons or things in a general way. They are given below:

ONE
THEY
ALL
FEW
MANY
OTHERS

These pronouns do not replace any particular nouns and are used independently in the subject or object part of a sentence. For example,

Indefinite pronouns used in subject part:

a. ONE does not make any decision when he is angry.
b. THEY say that she eloped with a neighbor.
c. ALL players play well in that match.
d. FEW good actors in the world.
e. MANY compete in Olympics, but one can win gold medal.

Indefinite pronouns used in object part:

a. We must do help to OTHERS.
b. I will win in my struggles ONE day.

Come on...

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Parts of Speech - Pronoun 2

In this lesson we will learn more about PRONOUN and its aspects.

Every sentence in English contains three important parts i.e. SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT.

For example consider this sentence,

The Sun Rises in the East.

In this The Sun is Subject

Rises is Verb

In the East is Object

SUBJECT and OBJECT parts always contain a noun. In this part we can use a noun or a pronoun called SUBJECTIVE PRONOUN, as well as we can use a noun or a pronoun used in the object part called OBJECTIVE PRONOUN. In a sentence, there is also another type of pronoun called POSSESSIVE pronoun, this pronoun represents anything a person or a thing or a place possesses.

Now we will see all the types of pronoun now.

First Person:

I, WE-subjective pronouns

ME, US-objective pronouns

MY, MINE, OUR, OURS-possessive pronouns

Second Person:

YOU-subjective pronoun

YOU-objective pronoun

YOUR, YOURS-possessive pronoun

Third Person:

HE, SHE, IT, THEY-subjective pronouns

HIM, HER, IT, THEM-objective pronouns

HIS, HER, HERS, ITS, THEIR, THEIRS-possessive pronouns

In the next lesson we will learn about TYPES OF PRONOUNS..Okay.

Come on...

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Friday, July 19, 2013

Parts of Speech - Pronoun

What does a PRONOUN mean?
Pronoun is a word used to replace a noun. Each noun can be replaced by a pronoun.
Basically Pronouns are of seven-they are of:
1. I
2. WE
3. YOU
4. HE
5. SHE
6. IT
7. THEY

Every noun in English can be replaced by HE, SHE, IT, and THEY.

For example, HE can replace any singular male human in the world.

SHE can replace any singular female human, as well as IT will replace any inanimate object or thing. THEY can be used as a PLURAL noun for HE, SHE, and IT.

This universe consists of only three persons i.e. the person or persons who is (or) are speaking, and the person or persons who is (or) are spoken to. Got confused, don’t worry, I will clear it now.

The person or persons who is (or) are speaking i.e. I, WE, YOU (single or singular) and YOU (used for many or pleural), and the person or persons who is (or) are spoken to i.e. HE, SHE, IT, and THEY. Totally these are called in the name of PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

PURE PRONOUNS-I, WE, and YOU are pure pronouns because they do not represent any nouns.

From the above explanations we can come to a conclusion that,

I, We represent First Person

You, You represent Second Person

He, She, It, They represent Third Person

In the next lesson, we will see the continuation of the same lesson …okay.

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Monday, July 8, 2013

Parts of Speech - Noun

What a Noun means?

A noun is a word used to denote a person, place, or thing. We will see some examples now.

Robert, Hussain, Woman, Sister, Tailor-see these words denote a PERSON.

Singapore, New York, Boulevard, Garden, City-these words denote a PLACE

Television, Car, Computer, Bed, Pen-these words denote a THING

The Nouns are of four types:

1. Proper Noun

2. Common Noun

3. Collective Noun

4. Abstract Noun

Now I will describe each Noun with examples now.

1. Proper Noun: This noun denotes the name of a specific person or a specific place or a specific country.

E.g.

David-a particular person

New York-a particular place

Mexico-a particular county

2. Common Noun: This noun denotes the name given to a specific thing or a specific person or a specific place.

E.g.

Tree, Chair, Speaker, Rice-specific name given to a THING

Sister, Mother, Father, Girl-specific name given to a PERSON

Boulevard, Garden, City, Town-specific name given to a PLACE

Collective Noun: This noun denotes the name of a specific group of people or animals as a whole.

E.g.

Team, Herd, People, Cattle, Crowd-a collective name to a specific group of people or animals.

Abstract Noun: This noun denotes the name of a quality of state that we cannot feel obviously or touch overtly, but we can recognize it.

E.g.

Love, Sadness, Truth, God, Courage, Fear-a specific quality of state.

Understand, now in the next lesson we will see about the next part of speech PRONOUN…Okay

Come on…

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Parts of Speech


Understanding and applying English grammar is an essential part in learning medical transcription. From today, you will get new lessons on English grammar on a daily basis. So read the lessons carefully and understand them. This will be very much helpful to be a medical transcriptionist in the future. Lessons will be updated on a sequential basis. The first lesson introduces about Parts of Speech.

Every word in English belongs to a family. The name of that family is called “parts of speech”. There are 10 such families or groups or categories, and every word in English will fall under any of such of these 10 categories. We will see each family one by one now. What are the parts of speech?

1. Noun.
2. Pronoun
3. Article
4. Auxiliary
5. Verb
6. Adjective
7. Adverb
8. Preposition
9. Conjunction
10. Interjection

Every word in English language has one job in a sentence. We should understand this first clearly.  We cannot put any word anywhere as we like in a sentence, and each word must be placed in a particular compartment in a specified order. Then only that sentence can express some meaning to us. In the following lesson, we will learn about each part of speech one by one.

Okay.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...