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Saturday, December 25, 2010

Three types of muscles - Lesson 229

In this post we will learn about the Muscles and its types.
There are three types of muscles in the body which are briefly explained below. They are
1. Smooth muscles:- These muscles are also called involuntary or visceral muscles, are those muscle fibers that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and secretory ducts leading from glands. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. They are so called smooth because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm. Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged in bundles, while smooth muscle forms sheets of fibers as it wraps around tubes and vessels.

2. Striated muscles:- These muscles are also called voluntary or skeletal muscles which are the muscle fibers that move all bones as well as the face and eyes. We have deep or conscious control over the muscles through the central and peripheral nervous system. The fibers also called cells known Striated muscle fibers have a pattern or way of dark and light bands, or fibrils, in their cytoplasm. Fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles is called fascia, which contains the muscles such as blood, lymph, and nerve supply.

3. Cardiac muscle:- This muscle is striated in appearance but like smooth muscle in its auction. Its movement cannot be consciously controlled. The fibers of cardiac muscle are branching fibers and are found in the heart.

Skeletal Muscles actions:- Skeletal or striated muscles which are over 400 in the  human body are the muscles that move bones. When a muscle contracts, one of the bones to which it is joined remains virtually stationary as a result of other muscles that hold it in place. The point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone is called the origin or beginning of that muscle. Whenever the muscle contracts, another bone to which it is attached does move. The point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves is called the insertion of the muscle. The origin of the biceps is at the scapula, and its insertion is at the radius. Tendons are the connective tissue bands that connect muscles to the bones that they move.

Muscles can perform a variety of actions.

In the next post we will come across some of the meanings of the actions and vocabulary terms.

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.

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Wednesday, December 8, 2010


In this post we will learn about the remaining Pathological conditions in the Musculoskeletal system.  Herniation of an intervertebral disc: Abnormal protrusion of a cartilaginous intervertebral  pad into the neuralcanal or spinal nerves. This situation or condition is generally called as “slipped disk” (disc) that presses on the spinal nerves or the cord. Low-back pain, cervical pain, and ‘sciatica’ or radiating pain down to the leg are the symptoms, which depend on the location of the disk. Bed rest, Physical therapy, and drugs for pain  will help in initial treatment. In patients with chronic or recurrent disk herniation, ‘laminectomy,’ which means surgical removal of a portion of the vertebral arch to allow more room for the protruded disk also maybe advised. Spinal fusion of the two vertebrae with removal of the damaged and herniated disk may be necessary as well. Aspiration percutaneous diskectomy is a new technique for removing the disk by inserting a tube through the skin and aspirating the disk through the tube. Chemonucleolysis is an injection of a disk-dissolving enzyme, such as chymopapain into the center of a herniated desk.

Lyme disease: A recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, neurologic and cardiac symptoms. This is also known as “Lyme arthritis.”  The etiology of the condition is a spirochete or bacterium that is carried by a tick. It was first reported in Old Lyme, Connecticut, and is now found occurring throughout the eastern coast of the United States. It is treated with antibiotics.

Sprain: Trauma of a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments. These sprains may also indulge or involve damage to blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and nerves. A strain is a less serious injury with exceeding its limit of muscle. Application of ice and elevation of the joint are immediate measures to relieve pain and prevent swelling due to sprains.

Systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A chronic inflammatory disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs. This condition affects connective tissue or specifically a protein component called collagen, such as in tendons, ligaments, bones and cartilages of all over the body. Typically there is a red scaly rash on the face over the nose and cheeks, so that the patient resembles a wolf (lupus means wolf). Patients affected by this condition are usually women and they experience joint pain that is also called polyarthralgia, pyrexia and malaise. SLE is believed to be an autoimmune disease that can be diagnosed by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the bloodstream and characteristic white blood cells called LE cells. Treatment is with corticosteroids, which are the hormones made by the adrenal gland, and used to treat inflammatory conditions.

In the next lesson we will learn about TYPES OF MUSCLES.

In the next post, we will learn about the remaining pathological conditions related to musculoskeletal system. OK.

Come on…

To go to the prior lesson from here please click the link below.                                                   

To go to the FIRST lesson from here please click the link below.

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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...