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Thursday, April 22, 2010

TYPES OF DRUG THERAPIES USED IN PSYCHIATRY - LESSON 187

Now in this post we would learn several types of drug therapies. Neuroleptic drugs are the drugs that modify psychotic symptoms.  Some of the categories of these drugs are mentioned below:
1. Antianxiety Agents:- These drugs treat anxiety also called minor tranquilizers and sedatives.  Examples of these agents are barbiturates and drugs such as diazepam, which is also known as Valium and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride also known as Librium.
2. Antidepressants:- An imbalance in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain is the main cause for the basis of depression. For producing feelings of well-being of reverse depressive symptoms these drugs are used. For an example generally fluoxetine also called Prozac is commonly prescribed for antidepressant. This Prozac allows the passage of serotonin also known as a neurotransmitter into nerve cells. So that it improves mood, mental alertness, physical activity, and sleep patterns. In common most of the medications were prescribed by psychiatrists and physicians of their effectiveness and other effects after many studies. The oldest class of antidepressants are Tricyclic antidepressants.

Let us the examples of antidepressants:

1. Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitor:- The drug which suppresses an enzyme (MAO) degrades neurotransmitters. These drugs are so powerful that are prescribed for the treatment of depression. These MAOIs should not be combined with other psychoactive substances which are antidepressants, painkillers, stimulants, both legal and illegal etc except under the care of a physician. Sometimes they may cause lethal reactions.  These inhibitors are not as widely prescribed as other antidepressants because serious cardiovascular complications can cause with their use.

2. Stimulants:-  These Stimulants also called psychostimulants which are the drugs for temporary improvements in physical or mental conditions or both. The best examples of these kinds are enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as medicinal prescription and as illicit substances of recreational use or abuse. Amphetamines are used to produce elevation in mood. These stimulants are used for both individual and clinical for therapeutic purposes like reducing sleepiness, decreasing appetite and to treat obesity, to improve concentration, and also used to treat clinical depression.

3. Tricyclic Antidepressants:- These heterocyclic chemical compounds are used primarily as antidepressants. These drugs contain three fused rings called tricyclic in their chemical structure. They are named for their structures. So they are closely related group of antidepressant compounds. The newer antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

4. Lithium:- Lithium carbonate is used in the control of the manic phase of bipolar also called manic-depressive illness. It is polymeric in structure and also soluble in water. It is used to treat mania the up phase of the bipolar disorder.

5. Phenothiazines:- This is an organic compound that occurs in various antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs. This is a tricyclic compound in structure and soluble in benzene, ether, and acetic acid. These phenothiazines structure occurs in various neuroleptic drugs.

In the next post we will learn some vocabulary of psychiatric symptoms and disorders.

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