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Thursday, July 30, 2009


In this lesson we will see normal composition of urine chemical composition.
1. Color of the urine: Slightly yellow or straw colored.
2. Quantity of the urine: Normally is 1000 to 1500 ml/24 hours.
3. Specific gravity of the urine: 1.008 to 1.030.
4. pH value: 5.5 to 6.5.
5. Sugar: 0.015% (total sugar per day 7.20 gm/24 hours)
6. Nitrogen and amino acids: 0.15-0.30 gm/24 hours
7. Urea: 12 gm to 35 gm in 24 hours
8. Ammonia: 0.6 gm to 1.2 gm in 24 hours
9. Creatinine: 0.8 gm to 2.0 gm in 24 hours
10. Uric acid: 0.3 gm to 0.8 gm in 24 hours
11. Hippuric acid: 0.7 gm in 24 hours
12. Chlorides: 10 gm to 15 gm in 24 hours
13. Phosphorus: 1.2 gm in 24 hours
14. Sulphur: 1 gm in 24 hours
15. Ethereal: 0.1 gm in 24 hours
16. Sodium: 2.5 gm to 4 gm in 24 hours
17. Calcium: 0.1 gm to 0.3 gm in 24 hours
18. Potassium: 1.5 gm to 2.0 gm in 24 hours
19. Magnesium: 0.1 gm to 0.2 gm

In the next post we will see more about Urinary System suffixes and prefixes and its meanings. ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


In this lesson we will see about the process of filtration of kidneys.  Kidneys manufacture urine by a process called filtration. Each microscopic glomerulus wall is thin enough to allow water, sugar, salt, urea, and other nitrogenous wastes like uric acid and creatinine to go away the bloodstream. These materials going away from each glomerulus are accumulated in a minuscule cup-like structure called Bowman's capsule, which encloses each glomerulus. The walls of the glomeruli check large substances like proteins and blood cells from filtering into the Bowman's capsules. These substances stay behind in the blood and normally do not come into view in urine.

Renal tubule is a long twisted tube attached to the Bowman's capsule. These tubules are covered by tiny capillaries. When the water, sugar, urea, salts and other nitrogenous wastes pass through these renal tubules, all of the sugar and most of the water and some salts go again to the bloodstream. This process is called re-absorption.

Through this process only vital materials like sugar, salts, water, and acids retain into the body. Some salts, acids, sugar, and water remain in the renal tubule after this process. The remaining material in the renal tubule called urine now contains 95% of water, 5% urea, creatinine, salts, and acids. These renal tubules are combined in a larger collecting tubule, and thousands of these collecting tubules show the way to the renal pelvis, a reservoir in the central area of the kidney. Calices (singular-calix or calyx) are the small, cup-like sections of the renal pelvis.

The renal pelvis tapered into the ureter. The ureter carries the urine to the urinary bladder where the urine is for the short term stored. The outlet area of the bladder is closed by sphincters that allow the urine to run off the bladder. When the bladder fills up, a pressure is situated on the bottom of the urethra, so that only we feel to urinate.

In the next lesson we will see the normal composition of chemicals of urine. ok

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In this lesson we will learn about production of urine by urinary system.  The process of production of urine starts from the blood entry to the kidney. Blood enters into each kidney from two arteries such as the right and left renal arteries (both arteries in combination called aorta). The blood enters into the kidneys through the renal arteries through the hilum a depression inside the core of the kidney and the arteries branch into smaller and smaller arteries. The smallest arteries are called arterioles. These are situated all the way through the cortex.

Blood constantly move across these small arterioles. This flow is very crucial. Kidneys have their own special device to maintain this blood flow consistently. If blood pressure falls, the flow of blood is diminished. Kidney produces a hormone called renin and released it into the blood. This hormone stimulates the narrowing or contraction of arterioles and so blood pressure increased and blood flow in the kidneys is reinstated to customary.

Capillaries are the smaller blood vessels that are twisted and interlinked branches from each arteriole in the cortex of the kidney. The capillaries in collection form a small ball like structure called glomerulus. There are about one million glomeruli (singular-glomerulus) in the cortex of each kidney.

That's all...

In the next lesson we will learn about the process of filtration by kidneys..ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM:  Urinary system anatomy organs consists of Kidneys (two), Ureters (two), Urinary Bladder, and Urethra.
KIDNEYS:  Two bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity i.e. retroperitoneal area, which is on moreover side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region of the spine. The kidneys are fixed and set in a cushion of adipose tissue and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue for safeguard. The size of each kidney is fist-sized approximately and about 4 to 6 ounces of weight of each.

The kidneys consist of an outer cortex region (cortex means outer portion or bark or a tree) and an inner medulla region (medulla means core or inner portion). Hilum is a depression in each kidney on the medial margin of the kidney through which only blood vessels and nerves pass.


Each kidney has on long about 16 to 18 cm muscular tubes lined with mucous membrane. The put across the urine in peristaltic waves from the kidney to the urinary bladder.


This is a hollow, muscular, distensible pouch or bag like structure in the pelvic cavity. It works as a short-term pool or reservoir for urine. The Trigone is a triangular space at the base of the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra shows the way out.

A membranous tube through which urine is released from the urinary bladder. The course of action of pushing out urine is called voiding through the urethra is called micturition. The external opening of the urethra is called the urethral or urinary meatus. There are some differences between male urethra and female urethra. In female, the urethra is roughly 1 ½ inches in length, positioning anterior to the vagina and vaginal meatus. The male urethra is about 8 inches long and extends downward through the prostate meatus at the top of the penis.
In the next post we will learn how the kidneys produce urine...ok
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To go to the next lesson from here click the link below