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Thursday, April 8, 2010

DRUG ABUSE AND DRUG DEPENDENCE DISORDERS -2 - LESSON 183

In this post we would learn about the remaining drug abused substances. Hallucinogens:- Hallucinogens are the classes of psychoactive drugs which have common that can cause subjective changes in emotion, thought, perception and consciousness. Examples of hallucinogens are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline (peyote), and phencyclidine (PCP). The hallucinogens are generally episodic because of their psychoactive effects are so frequent, potent use may lead to marked tolerance. Deliriants such as diphenhydramine and atropine may cause hallucinations in the proper sense.

Opioids:- This group of drugs induces both heroin and morphine and synthetic drugs with action of morphine such as codeine and methadone. These compounds are generally prescribed as analgesics, anesthetics, or cough-suppressants. The same symptoms of opioid intoxication are pupillary constriction, euphoria, slowness in movement, drowsiness, and slurred speech. The effects of overdose are slow and shallow breathing, convulsions, coma and possible death. The general symptoms are watery eyes, rhinorrhea, pupillary dilation, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, and muscle and joint pain.

Sedatives, hpnotics or anxiolytics:- The soothing, relaxing, euphoric effects are commonly seen in this drug which produce sleep also called hypnotics. The sleeping pills also include barbiturates such phenobarbital and secobarbital. The other drugs produce a barabiturate-like effect are diazepam also called Valium and meprohamate also called Miltown, Equanil. Intoxication is characterized by slurred speech and disorientation. Effects of overdose are shallow respiration, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, and possibly death.

Upto this we have learned about the drug abuse substances. Now we would study about Therapeutic Terminology

Therapeutic Terminology:- Some of the major Therapeutic techniques for psychiatric disorders are psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy and drug therapy.

Psychotherapy:- Psychotherapy with a psychotherapist aims to increase the individual's sense of their own well-being. Psychotherapists maintain techniques based on building, dialogue, communication and behavior change and that are made to fasten the mental health of a clinet or patient, or to improve group relationships ex: family etc,. This therapy may also be done by different practitioners such as psychiatry, clinical psychology, counselling psychology, rehabilitation counselling, psychoanalysis, and others. This treatment of emotional problems can be reduced by psychological techniques. 

There are different types of psychotherapies which we will learn in brief in the next lesson.
                                       Okay.

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