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Wednesday, March 11, 2009

DISEASES OF LIVER, GALLBLADDER, AND PANCREAS-LESSON 67

1. Cirrhosis- This is an end-stage liver disease described by diffuse damage to hepatic parenchymal cells. This makes nodular regeneration, fibrosis, and disturbance of normal architecture. Cirrhosis is associated with failure in the function of hepatic cells and interference with blood flow in the liver, and often resulting in jaundice, portal hypertension, ascites, and ultimately biochemical and functional signs of hepatic failure.

2. Gallstones (biliary calculus or cholelith)- A collection of bile in the gallbladder or a bile duct and becomes hard to create gallstones. A gallstone is composed mainly of a mixture of cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, sometimes as an unmixed stone composed of just one of these substances.

3. Pancreatitis- Inflammation of the pancreas. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Alcoholism or gallstones or trauma in the abdomen or drugs may develop inflammation in the pancreas. Gastric juices too attack tissues of the pancreas and damage the gland.

4. Viral hepatitis- Seven immunologically unrelated viruses such as hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, hepatitis E virus, hepatitis F virus, hepatitis G virus develop inflammation in the liver. Hepatitis may be caused sometimes also through viral infection, such as by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.

In the next lesson we will study more medical terminologies related to digestive system. Okay.

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DISEASES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT-LESSON 66

1. Achalasia- Malfunction of lower esophageal sphincter muscles fail to relax referring especially to visceral openings such as the pylorus, cardia, or any other sphincter muscles. Due to this condition peristaltic function of the esophagus fails and food cannot pass through the esophagus. A plain diet, which is low in bulk and the expansion of the lower esophageal sphincter or ELS are the curative measures of this symptom.

2. Anal fistula- This is an abnormal tube-like duct near the anus connects with the rectum. An anal fissure is a narrow cut in the anal wall.

3. Colonic polyposis- Occurrence of numerous polyps i.e. small growths from the mucous membrane of the colon.

4. Colorectal cancer- Carcinoma of the colon and rectum or of both. This disease condition may happen due to the beef diet, which is not cooked well, and the entry of the bacteria from that diet in the colon that increases the level of fatty acids and bile in the blood. These are the factors or carcinogens of this cancer. The treatment for this cancer is chemotherapy and radiation depends on the extent of spread of disease.

5. Crohn’s disease (regional enteritis)- chronic inflammation of the intestines of unknown cause including the terminal ileum and less frequently other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. This is described by patchy deep ulcers that may cause fistulas, and narrowing and thickening of the bowel by fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, with noncaseating tuberculoid granulomas, and these also may be found in regional lymph nodes. The symptoms of Crohn’s disease include fever, diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, and weight loss.

6. Diverticula- The pouches or sacs opening from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the gut or bladder in the intestinal wall.

7. Dysentery- Inflamed instestines with severe pain. The bacteria named salmonellae or shigellae, or amebae from the ingested food or water are the causes of this disease condition. Due to the any of the above factors generally colon gets inflamed, and so colitis, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps happen.

8. Esophageal varices- Swollen and twisted longitudinal venous varices at the distal end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension. They are superficial and accountable to ulceration and massive bleeding.

9. Hemorrhoids (piles)- Varices that is swollen and twisted varicose condition of the external hemorrhoidal veins causing sore swellings at the rectal area.

10. Hernia (rupture)- Overhanging of a part or structure through the muscle tissues generally containing it. A hiatal hernia is a hernia in which the upper portion of the abdomen through the esophageal notch of the diaphragm. An inguinal hernia happens when a small sphere of the bowel projects through a tired place in the lower abdominal muscle wall that is groin.

11. Ileus- Involuntary, vibrant, or inactive obstruction of the bowel; may be accompanies by severe colicky pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passage of stool, and often fever and dehydration. The cause of this condition probably be a tumor, absence of peristalsis, heavy lifting or coughing.

12. Intussusception- telescoping of the intestines. This state of intestines happens in general in children in common in ileocecal region. Anastomosis is the procedure done to cure this condition.

13. Irritable bowel syndrome- This abnormality is a combination of a group of symptoms such as diarrhea and constipation, lower abdominal pain with bloating accompanied with stress and tension. This condition is also called spastic colon. Treatment for this condition is probably psychotherapy by which the stress is managed with medications such as bulk-forming laxatives and antidiarrheals to relieve the symptoms. A high fiber and bran would make the stools soft and regular bowel movements get established.

14. Ulcer or erosion (ulcus)- A cut through the skin or a mucous membrane resulting from damage of tissue, usually with swelling and redness. Gastric or duodenal ulcers are examples. The combination of bacteria, more hydrochloric acid, and pepsin, a gastric juice damage the epithelial lines of intestines and form lesions called peptic ulcers. The source of the duodenal ulcer is believed to be by the bacteria called Helicobacter pylori or in short H. pylori.

15. Ulcerative colitis- This is chronic disease in nature. The cause is unknown. This gives ulceration both colon and rectum resulting in rectal bleeding, mucosal crypt abscesses, inflammatory pseudopolyps, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Often anemia, hypoproteinemia, and electrolyte imbalance will be the signs, and is less frequently complicated by peritonitis, toxic megacolon, or carcinoma of the colon.

16. Volvulus- Twisting of the intestine making barriers. If not treated in time may effect in vascular compromise of the involved intestine.


Next post is the continuation of this that is disease conditions of liver, gallbladder, and pancreas..ok
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ORAL CAVITY DISEASES - LESSON 65

1. Aphthous stomatitis (aphtha)- Idiopathic or cause unknown oral ulcers of small in size due to inflammation with formation of a gray exudate. This condition is also called canker sores. Aphth/o means ulcer.

2. Dental caries- Tooth decomposition or tooth decay. a localized, increasingly damaging disease of the teeth which starts at the external surface (usually the enamel) with the obvious termination of the inorganic components by organic acids that are produced in immediate nearness to the tooth by the enzymatic action of masses of microorganisms (in the bacterial plaque) on carbohydrates.

3. Herpetic stomatitis- Inflammation of the gums, lips, palate, and tongue i.e. whole mouth by the herpesvirus.
4. Oral leukoplakia (smoker’s patches)- A white patch of oral or female genital mucous membrane that cannot be cleaned off and cannot be diagnosed clinically as any particular disease. This is a precancerous state. The etiological factors are chronic alcohol and tobacco use.

5. Periodontal disease- Disease due to the inflammation of the gums, teeth, and surround tissues called pyorrhea (py/o means pus).
In the next lesson we will learn more about disease conditions of gastrointestinal tract..ok
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GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE SYMPTOMS-LESSON 64

NOTE:  1. Etiology means the cause of the disease and the treatment for that disease. Eti/o means cause.
2. Idiopathic means the cause of the disease is not known or not be understood. Idi/o means not known.

GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS:

1. Ascites- Collection of watery serous fluids abnormally in the stomach. May be due to this sometimes the accumulated fluid leaks out of the bloodstream and gathers in the peritoneal cavity. This can be the symptoms of inflammatory disorder or neoplasm of the abdomen, venous hypertension caused by cirrhosis, and heart failure.

2. Anorexia- Lessened need to eat i.e. less appetite (-orexia means appetite). This is may be the sign of liver disease or growth of abnormal cells called malignancy. Anorexia nervosa is the disease condition in which less appetite is caused due to emotional difficulties such as worries, nervousness, and anger.

3. Achlorhydria- Abnormal condition of lack of gastric juice or hydrochloric acid in the abdomen.

4. Constipation- Intermittent or irregular of incomplete bowel movements. The bowel movement is difficult and delayed excretion of undigested food from the anus. A laxative is a medicine useful to cure this condition. A cathartic is an laxative agent. In constipation the stools are very solid and waterless.

5. Colic- A sudden and involuntary pain in the abdomen. This pain is acute in nature. This is caused by spasms of the intestinal muscles. Colic includes cramps and contractures may happen during infancy especially first three months of an infant due to the swallowing of air called aerophagia, overfeeding in a rapid manner, and milk allergy.

6. Dysphagia- Troubled swallowing or difficulty in swallowing, which may be even painful. This problem happens due to the spontaneous movements of the esophagus. The food passageway may be blocked by a cancer or swelling.

7. Diarrhea- Frequent release or discharge of semisolid or watery fecal matter or stools. These symptoms may happen due to an infection or toxin in the gastric tract and probably happen after the meal. These stools may be watery or bloody.

8. Flatus- The gas or air drives out from the anus.

9. Gastroesophageal reflux- The contents of the food go over into the esophagus possibly may be also into the pharynx, and aspiration may also happen if the food aspirated between the vocal cords and down into the trachea. Aspiration is a pulmonary complication. The symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux are heartburn and acid taste in the mouth called acidity. This may also happen due to an abnormal condition called hiatal hernia, in which the swelling of the abdominal wall upwards toward the esophagus.

10. Hematochezia- Excretion of bright red blood from the rectum. This may happen in association with colonic tumors, hemorrhoids, and ulcerative colitis.

11. Jaundice- bile pigments excreted and a yellowish tinting of the sclerae, deeper tissues, and the skin. This gives yellowish-orange coloration to the skin and other tissues due to high bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is also called icterus. This may happen due to malfunction of the hepatocytes or liver cells called hepatopathy, which stops the mixture of bilirubin with bile. Choledocholithiasis is a condition of presence of stones in the common bile duct, which stops bilirubin and bile being excreted into the intestines. The another reason for jaundice is undue breakdown of red blood cells in hemolysis makes surplus bilirubin in the blood.

12. Melena- Excretion of tarry, black, dark brown color stool due to the presence of blood in the feces due to the alteration by the intestinal juices. This may be a sign of bleeding above the duodenum with bleeding ulcers.

13. Nausea- A tendency to vomit, which gives an unlikable sensation from the abdomen. Seasickness is the old name for this condition. Irritation of nerve endings in the stomach or any other part of the body is also a cause for this condition. Obstruction of the bile duct, stomach, or intestine, a puncture in any of the abdominal organ, or any poison materials in the gastrointestinal tract may create this condition.

14. Steatorrhea- Excretion of excessive fat from the feces. The malabsorption of fat would gather more fat remain in the abdomen. The cause of this abnormality is due to pancreatitis or enteritis.
Next post is the continuation of this post, in the next post we will study about important oral cavity and teeth disease conditions..ok

Come on..

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below