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Wednesday, February 24, 2010


I.Q.Tests:- 1. The I.Q. tests like the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale are the test used for patient's mental health and intelligence by the Clinical psychologists.
2. To reveal personality structure the I.Q. tests like Rorschach technique and Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) are used for patient.
3. To draw certain picture, geometric designs or a body the tests like Bender-Gestalt Test and Draw a Person Test are used for the patients. These tests are useful in detecting deficiencies in movement or coordination due to brain damage.
4. The test which is widely used for sense of duty or responsibility, ability to relate others and dominance and an objective measure of psychological disorders in adolescents and adults.
The responses made by a patient whenever they are questioned are compared with diagnoses of schizophrenia, depression and so on.
Now let us come to know about Psychiatric symptoms
The following are the terms used to describe the abnormalities in behaviour and help you to understand about Psychiatric disorders.
1. Amnesia:- It deals with loss of memory.
2. Anxiety:- This deals with apprehension, uneasiness or dread often accompanied by palpitations, tightness in the chest, choking sensations and breathlessness.
3. Apathy:- In this emotions not present, it also deals with lack of interest or emotional involvement.
4. Autism:- More lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with deep thoughts; withdrawal and retarded language development.
5. Compulsion:- It deals with uncontrollable urge to perform the action repeatedly.
In the next post we would learn about the remaining psychiatric symptoms
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Monday, February 22, 2010


PSYCHIATRY: Many people want to know the idea about Psychiatry. Then what is Psychiatry?
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the study, treatment and prevention of mental illness. This term was first found by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808. This has been explained as an intermediatary between the world from a social context from the perspective of those who are mentally ill. Comparable with surgery, internal medicine, pediatrics, and obstetrics this is a speciality of clinical medicine.

Who are Psychiatrists?
Psychiatrists complete the medical training as same as other physicians and receive an and their training is around field of medicine. They specialize in doctor-patient relationship and are trained to different levels in field of psychotherapy and other therapeutic communication techniques.
But Psychiatrists differ from Psychologists. Psychiatrists can counsel patients, prescribe medication, utilize neuroimaging in a research setting, order laboratory tests and conduct physical examinations. Child Psychiatrists specialize in the treatment of children, forensic Psychiatrists specialize in the legal aspects of psychiatry, such as determination of mental competence in criminal cases.
Psychoanalysts complete 3 to 5 years of training in a special psychotherapeutic technique called psychoanalysis in which the patient freely relates her or his thoughts to the analyst, who does not interfere in the flow of thoughts.
Who is a Psychologist? What is the difference between psychologist and psychiatrist?
Psychologist is a nonmedical person who is trained in methods of psychotherapy, analysis, and research and completes a Ph.D degree in a specific filed of interest, such as experimental psychology, social psychology or clinical psychology.
A clinical psychology is nothing but patient-oriented psychology. A clinical psychologist can use various methods of psychotherapy to treat patients but, unlike the psychiatrist, cannot use drugs or electroconvulsive therapy without the permission of a physician.
There are different kinds of psychiatries in the field of medicine in which Psychiatrists are dealing about in daily life. Some of the psychiatries are mentioned below:
1. Child and adolescent psychiatry:- This is a branch of psychiatry which specializes with children, teenagers and their families.
2. Biological psychiatry:- This is an approach to psychiatry that deals with mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
3. Forensic psychiatry:- This deals with the interface between law and psychiatry.
5. Social psychiatry:- It is the branch of medicine that deals with the interpersonal and cultural context of metal disorder and wellbeing.
6. Emergency psychiatry:- This is the cilinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.
7. Orthomolecular psychiatry:- It mainly explains the practice of preventing and curing disease by giving optimal amounts of substances which are natural to our body.
8. Military psychiatry:- It covers important conditions of psychiatry and mental disorders within the military context.
9. Geriatric psychiatry:- This is a branch of psychiatry which deals with the study, eradication, prevention and treatment of mental disorders in humans with older age.
10. Cross-cultural psychiatry:- This is a branch of psychiatry which concerns with the cultural and thnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services.
In the next post we would learn about IQ tests.
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Thursday, February 18, 2010


Now let us common we would learn some Abbreviations. Every medical transcriptionist must know these abbreviations while doing the live dictations from hospitals. These represent the ide of when a drug should be given to a patient in hospital or home by others or taken by the patient himself in a chronological order.
1. ac - before meals
2. ad lib - freely as desired
3. b.i.d. - two times a day
4. PDR - Physician's Desk Reference
5. po - by mouth; (per os)
6. p.r.n. - when requested; (pro re nata)
7. c^ - with
8. caps - capsule
9. cc - cubic centimeter
10. FDA - Food and Drug Administration
11. gm - gram
12. gt, gtt - drops
13. h - hour
14. IM - intramuscular
15. IV - intravenous
16. mg - milligram
17. NPO - nothing by mouth
18. NSAID - nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug
19. os - mouth
20. oz - ounce
21. pc - after meals
22. Q(q) - every
23. q.a.m. - every morning
24. q.d. - every day
25. q.h. - every hour
26. q.h.s. - at bedtime
27. q.i.d. - four times a day
28. q.n.s. - quantity not sufficient
29. q.o.d. - every other day
30. q.p.m. - every evening
31. g - without
32. subq - subcutaneous injection
33. sig - let it be labelled
34. sos - if necessary (si opus sit)
35. tab - tablet
36. t.i.d. - three times a day

This lesson concludes Pharmacology. From the next lesson we will start Psychiatry. Okay.

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Wednesday, February 17, 2010


In this lesson we would learn about vitamins and their food source and the remaining combining forms:
1. Vitamin A is named as Retinol, dehydroretinol which is present in green leafy and yellow vegetables; liver, eggs, cod liver oil.
2. Vitamin B1 is named as Thiamine which is present in yeast, ham, liver, peanuts and milk.
3. Vitamin B2 is named as Riboflavin which is present in milk, liver, green vegetables.
4. Niacin is named as Nicotinic acid which is present yeast, liver, peanuts, fish, poultry.
5. Vitamin B6 is named as Pyridoxine which is present in liver, fish, yeast.
6. Vitamin B12 is named as Cyanocobalamin which is present in milk, eggs, liver.
7. Vitamin C is named as Ascorbic acid which is present citrus fruits, vegetables.
8. Vitamin D is named as Calciferol which is present cod liver oil, milk, egg yolk.
9. Vitamin E is named as alpha-tocopherol which is present in wheat gram oil, cereals, egg yolk.
10. Vitamin K is named as Phytonadione; menaquinone, menadione which is present in Alfalfa, spinach, cabbage.

In the next lesson we will learn about Pharmacological medical terminologies. Okay.

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Tuesday, February 16, 2010


In this lesson we will learn about the Combining forms, Prefixes and Terminology
Combining form -> Meaning -> Terminology
1. aer/o means air - aerosol means particles of solution in air suspended.
2. aiges/o means sensitivity to pain - analgesic means without sensitivity to pain.
3. bronch/o means bronchial tube - agents which expands bronchial tubes - bronchodilator.
( Theophylline is as smooth muscle relaxtant used to treat asthma, emphysema and
Chronic bronchitis)
4. chem/o means drug - chemotherapy means treatment using drugs.
5. cras/o means mixture - idiosyncrasy means an abnormal unexpected
effect of a drug that is peculiar to an individual.
(idi/o means individual, peculiar, syn- means together)
6. cutane/o means skin - subcutaneous means under the skin.
7. derm/o means skin - hypodermic means also under the skin.
8. erg/o means work - synergism means condition of working.
9. esthes/o means feeling, sensation - anesthesia means without sensation of histamine.
10. hist/o means tissue - antihistamine means against more production.
(Histamine means a substance present in all body tissues which causes capillary dilation and gastric acid secretion and constricts bronchial tube)
11. hypn/o means sleep - hypnotic which means pertaining to sleep.
12. latr/o means treatment - latrogenic which means side effect of treatment.
13. lingu/o means tongue - sublingual which means under the tongue.
14. myc/o means mold, fungus - erythromycin which means effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative.
15. narc/o means stupor - narcotic which means pertaining to stupor.
16. pharmac/o means drug - pharmacology means study of drugs.
17. prurit/o means itching - antipruritic which is against itching.
18. pyret/o means fever - antipyretic which means against fever.
19. thec/o means sheath - intrathecal which means within the sheath.
(Sheath means 'brain and spinal cord)
In the next post we would learn about Vitamins and their source in food and the remaining combining forms. Okay.
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Thursday, February 11, 2010


In this lesson we will learn about the classes of Drugs:
1. ACE inhibitor:- It lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II which is a powerful vasoconstrictor.
2. Amphetamine:- It is a Central nervous system stimulant.
3. Analgesic:- Drug which stops pain.
4. Anesthetic:- Drug which reduces or takes out sensation.
5. Antacid:- Drug which is Gastrointestinal that neutralizes acid in the stomach.
6. Antianginal:- A drug which stops angina which means chest pain due to enough flow of blood to the heart muscle.
7. Antiarrhythmic:- A cardiovascular drug which helps to restore heart rhythm to a regular cycle.
8. Antibiotic:- A chemical substance produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or kill foreign organisms in the body.
9. Anticoagulant:- Clotting of blood is prevented by the drug.
10. Anticonvulsant:- Convulsions of blood is prevented by the drug (abnormal brain activity).
11. Antidepressant:- A drug used to relieve symptoms of depression.
12. Antidiabetic:- A drug which is used in treatment of diabetes melitus.
13. Antidiarrheal:- A drug which is used in treatment of diarrhea.
14. Antiemetic:- To prevent nausea and vomiting this agent is used.
15. Antihistamine:- The drugs which are used to block the action of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergy.
16. Antihypertensive:- An agent which lowers blood pressure.
17. Antinauseant:- An agent which prevents nausea and vomiting, antiemetic.
18. Antiulcer drug:- The secretion of acid by cells of the lining of stomach which is inhibited by this drug.
19. Barbituate:- A drug which is sedative-hypnotic and is derived from barbituric acid.
20. Beta-blocker:- A drug which blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmics, antianginals, and antihypertensives.
21. Caffeine:- Stimulant of Central nervous system.
22. Calcium channel blocker:- A drug which blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and muscle lining of blood vessels; and also used as antiarrhythmics, antianginals, and antihypertensives.
23. Cardiotonic:- A drug which promotes the force and efficiency of the heart.
24. Cathartic:- A drug which prevents constipation.
25. Diuretic:- A drug which is used to improve the production of urine and reduces the volume of fluid i.e, hypertensive.
26. Emetic:- A drug which is used to promote vomiting.
27. Glucocorticoid:- A hormone from the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation.
28. Hypnotic:- An agent which produces sleep.
29. Laxative:- Weak cathartic.
30. Narcotic:- A drug of habit-forming which is used to relieve pain by producing stupor or insensibility.
31. Purgative:- A strong cathartic.
32. Sedative:- A drug which is mildly hypnotic that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep.
33. Stimulant:- An agent which excites and promotes activity.
34. Tranquilizer:- A drug which is used to control anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior.

In the next lesson we will study about pharmacological combining forms, terminologies, and prefixes. Okay.

Come on.

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In this post we will learn about the general medical terms of pharmacology and their definitions
General terms and their meanings
1. Addictive action:- An action in which two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug.
2. Aerosol:- Drug particles which are suspended in air.
3. Antidote:- Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug.
4. Anaphylaxis:- An extensive level of hypersensitivity reaction of the body to a drug or foreign organism.
5. Brand name:- A commercial name for a drug trade name.
6. Chemical name:- A drug's chemical formula
7. Contraindications:- Prevention of particular drug or treatment for the patient's condition.
8. Food and Drug Administration (FDA):- For enforcing the proper drug manufacture and clinical use the Governmental agency is having the legal responsibility.
9. Generic name:- A drug's legal noncommercial name.
10. Iatrogenic:- Individual sensitivity of a drug or a result of mistakes in a drug use having an effect is produced.
11. Idiosyncrasy:- The effect which is produced in a particular sensitive individual which is unexpected but not seen in most patients.
12. Inhalation:- Gaseous or vapor form of drugs is given through the nose or mouth.
13. Medicinal Chemistry:- Relationship between chemical structure and biological effects, study of new drug synthesis.
14. Molecular pharmacology:- The study of interaction of drugs and subcellular entities such as DNA, RNA and enzymes.
15. Oral administration:- The drugs which are given by mouth.
16. Parenteral administration:- The drugs which are given by injection into the skin, muscle or veins or any route through the digestive tract.
17. Pharmacodynamics:- The study of effects of a drug within the body.
18. Pharmacokinetics:- For a period of time we have to calculate the drug concentration in tissues and blood.
19. Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR):- The lists of drug products which is referred.
20. Receptor:- A drug interacts in the body with a target substance.
21. Rectal administration:- The drugs which are inserted through the anus into the rectum.
22. Side effect:- From the use of a drug which routinely results in toxic effect.
23. Sublingual administration:- Under the tongue drugs are placed.
24. Synergism:- The combination of two or more drugs causes in effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug one potentiation.
25. Syringe:- To withdraw fluids from the body this instrument is used.
26. Tolerance:- To achieve the desired effect larger and larger doses of drugs are given.
As the treatment with a drug progresses the patient becomes resistant.
27. Topical application:- The drugs which are applied on the mucous membrane of the body, i.e, ointments, creams, and lotions which are applied.
28. Toxicity:- Drug's harmful effects.
29. Toxicology:- The study of harmful chemicals and their effects on the body and is a branch of pharmacology.
30. Transport:- The movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells.
31. United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P):- List of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing with an authoritative list.
32. Vitamin:- Substance which is good for health and growth and which is found in foods and in essential.
In the next post we would learn about the Classes of Drugs.
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Wednesday, February 10, 2010


Now in this lesson we will learn about Respiratory Drugs and their types
Respiratory Drugs:- These drugs are given for the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), allergy, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, lung disease, smoking cessation, pneumonia, emphysema, sinus infections, and others. Bronchodilators are used to open the air passages and can be administered by injection or inhalers like aerosol. These drugs also reduce inflammation in nasal passages. There are varieties of Respiratory Drugs.
1. Bronchodilators:- These medicines are helpful to open the bronchial tubes of the lungs, allowing more air to flow through them.
Exs:- 1. Albuterol (Proventil)
2. Aminophylline (Amoline)
3. (Nembutal)
4. Epinephrine
5. Theophyline (Theo-Dur)
2. Steroid:- Steroids are the drugs that doctors typically prescribe tohelp control inflammation in the body. They are often used for control conditions like asthma and lupus.
Exs:- 1. Beclomethasone (Becloven)
2. Vancenase Nasal Inhaler
Sedatives:- The drugs that relax and calm nervousness and permitting to sleep. These generally work by modulating signals within the central nervous system. Hypnotics are sedative drugs that produce sleep. Most sedatives also have addictive potential. For all these reasons, sedatives are used under supervision and only when prescribed they are to be used.
Exs:- 1. Flurazepam (Daimane)
2. Temazepam (Restoril)
3. Triazolam (Haloion)
4. Zolpiden (Ambien)
Barbiturates:- Barbiturates are a type of sedative-hypnotic derived from barbituric acid. A patient can develop tolerance to barbiturates, making the drugs habit forming.
Exs:- 1. Phenobarbital
2. Secobarbital (Seconal)
3. Sodium pentobarbital
Stimulants:- Stimulants are the medications that act on the brain and are used to speed up vital processes. They are used to increase heart rate, breathing rate and brain function. High dose can produce restlessness, insomnia, and hypertension. Some stimulants affect only a specific organ such as heart, lungs, brain or nervous system. Caffiene is also a cerebral stimulant. It is used in drugs to relieve certain types of headache by constricting cerebral blood vessels. Some stimulants cause unwanted side effects. For example, pseudoephedrine found in some cold medicines can increase the heart rate.
Exs:- 1. Caffeine
2. Dextroamphetamine sulfate (Dexedrine)
3. Methylphenidatle (Ritalin)
Tranquilizers:- A tranquilizer is a drug that acts on the central nervous system and is used to calm, decrease anxiety, or help a person to sleep. These are often called depressants because they suppress the central nervous system and slow the body down, they are used to treat mental illness, anxiety and sleeplessness. They should be used only under the supervision of Physician. There are two types or categories of tranquilizers. They are major tranquilizers and minor tranquilizers. The major tranquilizers are called antipsychotic drugs and the minor tranquilizers are called antianxiety drugs.
Major Tranquilizers:
Exs:- 1. Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
2. Lithium
3. Thioridazine (Mellaril)
4. Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
Minor Tranquilizers:
Exs:- 1. Alprazolam (Xanax)
2. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
3. Clorazepate (Tranxene)
4. Diazepam (Valium)
5. Flurazepam (Daimane)
6. Oxazepam (Serax)
In the next post we would learn about the general medical terms of pharmacology. Okay.

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Now in this lesson we will learn about Gastrointestinal Drugs and their types
Gastrointestinal Drugs:- These drugs are used to relieve uncomfortable and dangerous symptoms, rather than as cures for particular diseases. The various types of gastrointestinal drugs are:-
1. Antacids:- Antacids are the drugs which are used to neutralize the hydrochloric acid in the stomach to cure symptoms of peptic ulcer, esophagitis and epigastric discomfort. These Antacids are taken by mouth and contain ingredients such as aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate in various combinations. They also contain ingredients such as simethicone which takes out gas.
Exs:- 1. Aluminium and magnesium antacid (Gaviscon)
2. Magnesium antacid (milk of magnesia)
3. Aluminium antacid (Rolaids)
2. Antidiarrheal:- These drugs stops diarrhea and decrease the rapid movement of the walls of the colon.
Exs:- 1. Diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil)
2. Loperamide (Imodium)
3. Paregoric
3. Cathartic:- This relieves constipation and promote defecation for diagnostic and operative procedures and are used in the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the Cathartics are used to increase the intestinal salt content to fill the intestines. Some others increase the group of feaces to promote peristaisis in the intestinal walls.
Exs:- 1. Laxatives
2. Purgatives
4. Antinauseant (Antiemetic):- This medication relieves nausea and vomiting. The best examples of antiemetics are the medications of Coke syrup, ginger and motion sickness.
Exs:- 1. Medizine (Antivert)
2. Metociopramide (Regian)
3. Ondansetron (Zefran)
4. Prochlorperazine maleate (Compazine)
5. Antiulcer:- These drugs are exclusive of the antibacterial agents used to treat ulcers in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.
Exs:- 1. Cimetidine (Tagamet)
2. Ranitidine (Zantac)
3. Casanthranol and docusate sodium (Peri-Colace)
Respiratory Drugs:- These drugs are given for the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), allergy, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, lung disease, smoking cessation, pneumonia, emphysema, sinus infections, and others. Bronchodilators are used to open the air passages and can be administered by injection or inhalers like aerosol. These drugs also reduce inflammation in nasal passages. There are varieties of Respiratory Drugs.

In the next post we would learn about the different types of Respiratory Drugs. Okay.

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Tuesday, February 9, 2010


Now in this lesson we will learn about different types of Endocrine drugs
The various types of endocrine drugs are:-
1. Androgen:- These are male hormones that are used for male hormone replacement or to treat endometriosis and breast cancer in women.
Exs:- 1. Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)
2. Methyltesterone (Virilon)
2. Antiandrogen:- This will be helpful to treat prostate cancer. Antiandrogens usually work by blocking the related receptors, competing for binding sites on the cell's surface, rejecting the androgen's way.
Ex:- 1. Flutamide
3. Estrogen:- These are female harmones that are used for symptoms associated with menopause and to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. The deficiency of Estrogen can lead to osteoporosis.
Ex:- 1. Estrogens (Premarin, Estradiol)
4. Antiestrogen:- These are used to prevent recurrence of breast cancer and to treat metastatic breast cancer. Some patients have tumors that are extra-sensitive to this normal estrogen level. Antiestrogens block the protein on the outside wall of the estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell. By blocking this protein known as estrogen receptor, the free-floating estrogen cannot stimulate the cancer cells to grow and multiply any further.
Ex:- 1. Tamoxifen ( Nolvadex)
5. Glucocorticoid:- These hormones predominantly affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and to a smaller extent of fats and proteins. These hormones are made in the outside portion of the adrenal gland and chemically classed as steroids. Cortisol is the
major natural hormone of glucocorticoid. These hormones applies to equivalent hormones which are synthesized in the laboratory.
Exs:- 1. Dexamethasone (Decadron)
2. Prednisone (Deltasone)
6. Progestin:- This hormone suppresses the release of hormone and increases the cycle of menstruation. These progestins are prescribed for abnormal uterine bleeding due to harmonic imbalance together with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy and in oral contraceptives. The contraceptive drug imbedded under the skin is Levonorgestret also called Norplant.
Exs:- 1. Medroxyprogesterone (Provers)
2. Megestrol (Megace)
7. Thyroid Hormone:- These hormones are made artificially that prepares a lack of natural hormones produced by the thyroid gland. It is administered when there is a low output of hormone from the thyroid gland.
Exs:- 1. Levothyroxine (Synthroid)
2. Liothronine (Cytomel)
3. Liotrix (Euthroid)
In the next post we would learn about the different types of Gastrointestinal Drugs. Okay.

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Friday, February 5, 2010


In this post let us learn briefly about the types of Cardiovascular drugs
1. Statins:- These drugs are used to lower cholesterol in human body system. If the diet cannot be controlled through diet and exercises then doctors prescribe the different types of statins.
2. Diuretics:- These drugs are helpful to reduce fluid retention, blood pressure though they are not first line blood pressure medications. When the heart work harder these drugs reduces workload of heart.
3. Anticoagulants:- These drugs are used to prevent blood clotting. To shorten our future risk this drugs are regularly used.
4. Anti-platelet:- These drugs are preferred to anticoagulants and the mostly used medication is aspirin.
5. Beta-blockers:- These drugs have more uses. They are helpful in controlling blood pressure, slow fast arrhythmias and reduce chest pain associated with angina. The different types of beta-blockers are helpful to control heart disease symptoms.
6. Digitalis:- These drugs are used to stimulate the heart to beat more forcefully. Those who are suffering from arrhythmias may require this type of drugs and also used for the person who is in congestive heart failure.
7. Vasodilators:- These drugs raise blood pressure and are used in cardiac and respiratory failure and in bronchial asthma and to prolong the action of local anesthetics.
.8. Calcium channel blockers:- These drugs are also useful in the treatment of some forms of angina. It is also prescribed to treat certain arrhythmias or high blood pressure.
9. ACE (Angiotensin converting enzymes):- These inhibitors decrease blood supply to the heart and may lower blood pressure but these increase heart function.
Endocrine drugs:- These drugs acts like naturally occurring hormones. Androgens are male hormones used in male hormone replacement or to treat endometriosis and breast cancer in women. Estrogens are female hormones that are used for symptoms associated with menopause also called estrogen replacement therapy and also used for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. An antiestrogen drug is tamoxifen which is used to prevent recurrence of breast cancer.
In the next post we would learn about the different types of endocrine drugs. Okay.
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The Longest Medical Word

Today, we will know about an interesting medical term in medical language. This post is just to know about a different thing in the medica...