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Saturday, November 28, 2009


1. Aleveol/o- means a small bag or a sac
Alveolar means pertaining to a small bag.

2. Cac/o- means dreadful or bad
Cachexia means ill health and underfeeding. This may happen after a chronic disease.
-hexia means habit.

3. Carcin/o- means cancer or cancerous.
Carcinoma in situ means a cancer confined to a small area.

4. Cauter/o- means burn or heat.
Electrocauterization is a process of burning with electricity.

5. Chem/o- means chemical substance or a drug.
Chemotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using chemical substances i.e. drugs.

6. Cry/o- means cold or ice.
Cryotherapy is a treatment method of cancer using cold or ice in a fluid bag.

7. Fibr/o- means fibers.
Fibrosarcoma is a type of cancer of fibers and flesh portion of the body.

8. Follicul/o- means tiny glandular bags or sacs.
Follicular is pertaining to small glandular sacs or pouches or bags.

9. Fung/o- means fungus or yeast or toadstool or mushroom.
Fungating tumor is a tumor that appears like a toadstool or mushroom.

10. Medull/o- means spongy or malleable part.
Medullar tumor appears spongy inner portion of the body.

11. Mut/a- means a change by genetic.
Mutation is a process of heritable change.

12. Mutagen/o- means producing a genetic or inheritable change.
Mutagenic is pertaining to the production of change by genetic in a cell.

13. Onc/o- means cancerous growth.
Oncology is the study of cancer.

14. Papill/o- means nipple-like.
Papillary is pertaining to nipple like expansion.

15. Pharmac/o- means chemical or drug.
Pharmacology is the study of drugs.

16. Plas/o- means configuration of arrangement
Dysplastic is abnormal configuration or arrangement of formation.

17. Ple/o- means additional or extra or many.
Pleomorphic is pertaining to many varieties of cells i.e. the cancer is configured by a multiplicity of cells.

18. Polyp/o- means cyst or tumor or nodule.
Polypoid tumor is a cystic tumor.

19. -oid means resembling. Ex. Polypoid.

20. Radi/o- means beams or x-rays.
Radiotherapy is therapy of treating cancer using x-ray beams.

21. Sarc/o- means soft tissue, connective tissue.
Osteosarcoma is the tumor of fleshy tissue and bones.

22. Scrirrh/o- means tough or stiff.
Scirrhous is pertaining to toughness.

In the next lesson we will learn about important cancer Suffixes and Prefixes. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson please click the link below


1. -blast means undeveloped or not fully formed.
Osteoblast is the undeveloped bone cells.

2. -oma means tumor or bunch.
Neuroma is the tumor of the nerve cells.

3. -plasia means creation or development.
Hyperplasia is disproportionate or extreme development of a cell.

4. -plasm means development or growth.
Neoplasm is new growth or development of a cell.

5. -therapy means management.
Radiotherapy is the management of cancer using beams of x-rays.


1. ana- means toward the back or rearward.
Anaplasia means backward growth of a cell.

2. apo- means off or not there.
Apoptosis is the peter out or fade out.

3. epi- means upon or ahead.
Epidermoid means the cells resembling epidermal tissue.

4. Meta- means away from or outside.
Metastasis means spread away of a growth of a cell outside the limit.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


In this post we will study about different laboratory tests done to diagnose cancer one by one. Okay.
1. Acid phosphatase-This is an enzyme brings into being in lofty intensity in the blood of patients who has prostate cancer.
2. Alpha-fetoprotein test- This test is useful in find out the occurrence of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum of the patient who has testicular or liver cancer.
3. beta-HCG test- This test is useful in finding out the occurrence of HCG or human chorionic gonadotrophin in the serum of the blood of the patients who has cancer in their testicles.
4. CA-125- The patients who has cancer in ovaries i.e. ovarian cancer has a protein material that is from the cell exterior portion. This is produced by the cancer cells that produce cancer in the ovaries.
5. CEA test- This test is useful in discovering CEA or carcinoembryonic antigen in the blood of the patients who have cancer in their gastrointestinal tract or GI tract.
6. Estrogen receptor or Estradiol receptor Assay- This test is useful in determining the intensity of estrogen receptor sites in tumor cells of breast cancer patients. If a tumor is found to be estrogen receptor positive a patient will likely respond to antiestrogen hormone therapy.
7. PSA or prostate specific antigen- A protein produced by prostate cancer cells found in the blood of the patients.

In the next post we will learn about Important Cancer Lab Tests. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


PROSTATE CANCER STAGING: What is staging? Prostate cancer assessment is vital in finding out the stage of it. By this examination the depth of spread of cancer is found out. This is called cancer staging. Awareness of the stage would be of greatly helpful in classify the prospects and also advantageous at what time decide on using chemotherapies or radiation therapies or surgery.

TNM staging system:  Most commonly a staging system is used nowadays called four-stage TNM system (T means tumor, N means nodes, and M means metastases). The elements of this staging system comprise of the dimension or extent of the tumor, the number of concerned lymph nodes, and the occurrence of metastases of any.

Aim of Staging Method:  The ultimate aim of any staging is to confirm whether or not the cancer is still limited to the prostate. Up to T1 and T2 levels of prostate cancers the spread of cancer found merely in the prostate, but in the T3 and T4 level of cancers the spread is away from the prostate.

Assessment of Staging and its importance:  The spread of the cancer is possibly evidenced by many tests. These comprise of a CT scan or computed tomography. CT scan is used to evaluate spread if any inside the pelvis. Bone scans are used to try to find the cancer spread to the bones. Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging or MRI scan is used to meticulously assess the seminal vesicles and the prostatic capsule. Bone scans are supposed to make known of osteoblastic manifestation due to greater than before bone density in the areas of bone metastasis.

Fatal Characteristic Features of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Prostate cancer comes about at what time prostate gland cells grow nonstop and develop small tumors. The adaptation of prostate cell development is upset consequently breed wildly. Contrasting from normal cells, prostate cancer cells will not split, grownup, and vanishing in a firmly forbidden course for the reason that the cells are no longer well regulated. As opposed to dying as ordinary cells are supposed to, prostate cancer cells live longer than normal cells. They continue to form new and abnormal cells, which bring about tumors.

Prostate cancer characteristically is fabricated of many small tumors surrounded by the prostate gland. There are more chances of curing caner for about 90% if detected in this stage using surgical procedure called prostatectomy. Radiation also can be used at this stage if detected to eliminate cancer cells in the prostate gland.

Fatality of Prostate Cancer Cells:  Regrettably for the most part prostate cancer cases go overlooked at this stage because of not having symptoms and it is also difficult to identify the disease overtly in this early stage. Due to the nontreatment of cancer in this early stage unnoticed the cancer cells carry on to develop over and over again and spread accordingly. For the durations of this period cancer cells of the prostate developed are carried through the lymphatic system and the circulatory system, and also other parts of the body and they go on to breed tumors and spreads to the nearest regions and the chances of curing at this stage is very low.

The majority of the prostate cancer cases are sluggishly budding. They may take a few years too to be converted into large as much as necessary to be detected. In some cases it may take yet longer to proliferate further than the prostate gland. Some type of prostate cancers are of swift growing, as well as more destructive.

Treatment decisions to manage prostate cancer is taken depending on the type of whether it is speed growing one or a slow growing one. Presence of prostate cancer type cells in the seminal vesicle, rectum, bone, and lymph nodes in the groin area is the indications of proof.

In the next lesson we will learn about LABORATORY TESTS OF CANCER MEDICINE. Okay.

Come on.

To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below


What prostate?  Prostate is a gland of chestnut in shape, which surrounds the foundation of the urethra (a canal which shows the say on or after the bladder that releases the urine outwardly and ejaculates semen during sex) in the male. The prostate gland is a component of the male reproductive organ that lends a hand to creat and stock up seminal fluid.

For the reason that of its location, prostate often gets infection or any other illnesses and over and over again and which have an effect on urination, ejaculation, and on the odd occasion defecation. The prostate is full of many small glands and which put together approximately 20% of the fluid adding up to semen. When this gland takes part in cancer, the cells of these glands transmute and hooked on into cancer cells.

The prostate glands need of androgen (common phrase for an hormone agent which excites activity of the accessory male sex organs and promotes growth of male sex uniqueness and this is a by-product of androstane), male hormones to their job accurately.

Androgens consist of testosterone (created in maximum amount by the interstitial cells of the testes and also perhaps produced by the ovary and adrenal cortex; possibly created in nonglandular tissues from androstenedione; which is brings into play in the management of hypogonadism, cryptorchism, menorrhagia etc.,), which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone secreted by the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is transferred from testosterone within the prostate itself. These androgens are also accountable for derivative sex attributes for example hair in the face and bulk muscles etc.

Anatomy of the prostate:  In fully developed adult men usually the prostate is roughly 3 centimeters of length. Prostate gland weighs about 20 grams. The location of this is in the pelvis (a big bone of cup-shaped at the inferior end of the stem of the body formed the hip bone i.e. the pubic bone, ilium, and ischium on each side of the body in front), which is situated below the urinary bladder facing the rectum. The prostate enfolds a fraction of the urethra.

Prostate Cancer:  This cancer commonly comes about in men who are more than 50 years of age. Watchful rectal checkup by a doctor with digital palpation is an useful method for recognition o near the beginning prostatic carcinoma. Lymphangiography and CT scans are able to identify lymph node metastases of prostate cancer.

Identification of Prostate Cancer:  When one person affected by prostate cancer his level of an enzyme called acid phosphatase is generally released into the blood in small quantities by the prostate normally. If the person has metastatic prostate cancer his level of acid phosphatase will increase in high levels when do the blood test.

Treatment for Prostate Cancer:  Treatment for this cancer commonly be surgical that is removal of the prostate gland called prostatectomy. The other nonsurgical methods include radiotherapy and hormonal chemotherapy. As the prostatic cancer cells need androgens for the development of cancer, antiandrogen hormones will also be helpful, as well as estrogens to slow down development of cancer cells.

In the next lesson we will learn about Prostate Cancer Staging. Okay.

Come on.

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The Longest Medical Word

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