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Thursday, January 15, 2009


TYPES OF HERNIAS:  INGUINAL HERNIA: This type of hernia occurs in the groin (the area between the abdomen and thigh). It is called inguinal

because the intestines push through a weak spot in the inguinal canal, which is a triangle-shaped opening between layers of abdominal muscle near the groin. Obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting, and straining to pass stool can cause the intestine to push against the inguinal canal.

Symptoms of inguinal hernia: These may include a lump in the groin near the thigh, pain in the groin, and in severe cases, partial or complete blockage of the intestine. The doctor diagnoses hernia by doing a physical exam and by taking X-rays and blood tests to check for blockage in the intestine.

Treatment: Repair of inguinal hernias done by using laparoscopic techniques.

HIATAL HERNIA (HIATUS HERNIA): A hiatal hernia develops in a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move up into the chest. It causes heartburn from the stomach acid that flows back up through the opening.

EPIGASTRIC HERNIA: This type of hernia occurs as a result of a weakness in the muscles of the upper-middle abdomen, above the navel. Men are about three times more likely to have an epigastric hernia than women, and the majority occur in people between 20 and 50 years of age.

UMBILICAL HERNIA: Another natural area of weakness in the abdomen is the navel, which is made up of tissue that is thinner than that in the rest of the abdomen. These hernias can occur in babies, children and adults.

FEMORAL HERNIA: A femoral hernia occurs in the area between the abdomen and the thigh, and appears as a bulge on the upper thigh. This type of hernia is more common in women than men.

INCISIONAL HERNIA: A type of hernia called incisional can occur at the site of an incision from a previous surgery. The fat or tissue pushes through a weakness created by the surgical scar. An incisional hernia can occur months or years after the initial surgery.

TREATMENT FOR HERNIA: For small, non-strangulated and non-incarcerated hernias, various supports and trusses may offer temporary, symptomatic relief. However, the best treatment is herniorrhaphy (surgical closure or repair of the muscle wall through which the hernia protrudes).

When the weakened area is very large, some strong synthetic material may be sewn over the defect to reinforce the weak area. Postoperative care involves protecting the patient from respiratory infections that might cause coughing or sneezing, which would strain the suture line. Recovery is usually quick and complete.

In the next lesson we will see about amniocentesis..ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


In this lesson we will study about hernia in detail. This term is used often in medical transcription while doing files. 
HERNIA:  Hernia is a protrusion or bulging forth, of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. The hernia has three parts: the orifice through which it herniates, the hernial sac, and its contents.

1. Congenital or acquired: congenital hernias occur prenatally or in the first year(s) of life, and are caused by a congenital defect, whereas acquired hernias develop later on in life. However, this may be on the basis of a locus minoris resistentiae (Lat. place of least resistance) that is congenital, but only becomes symptomatic later in life, when degeneration and increased stress (for example, increased abdominal pressure from coughing in COPD) provoke the hernia.

2. Complete or incomplete: for example, the stomach may partially herniate into the chest, or completely.
3. Internal or external: external ones herniate to the outside world, whereas internal hernias protrude from their normal compartment to another (for example, mesenteric hernias).
4. Intraparietal hernia: hernia that does not reach all the way to the subcutis, but only to the musculoaponeurotic layer. An example is a Spigelian hernia. Intraparietal hernias may produce less obvious bulging, and may be less easily detected on clinical examination.

5. Bilateral: in this case, simultaneous repair may be considered, sometimes even with a giant prosthetic reinforcement.

6. Irreducible (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation. If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):

7. Strangulation: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal.

8. Obstruction: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.

9. Dysfunction: another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.).

This lesson continues in the next lesson..ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.


We now see some shorter suffixes used in medical language, which will be useful in medical transcription.

1. -er means one who-
radiographer-person who record x-rays

2. -ia means condition
leukemia-condition of increased WBC of cancerous nature
pneumonia-disease condition of lungs

3. -ist means one who specializes in
cardiologist-one who specializes in heart diseases
neurologist-one who specializes in nerve diseases

4. -ole means little, small
arteriole-small or little arteries

5. -ule means little, small
venule-small or little vein

6. -um, -ium means structure, tissue, thing
pericardium-strucutre surrounding the heart

7. -y means condition or process
cardiomyopathy-disease condition of heart

Now we see some adjective suffixes used in medical language useful for medical transcription.

1. -ac, -iac means pertaining to
cardiac-pertaining to heart

2. -al means pertaining to
peritoneal-pertaining to pericardium
pleural-pertaining to pleura

3. -ar means pertaining to
tonsillar-pertaining to tonsills

4. -ary means pertaining to
pulmonary-pertaining to lungs
axillary-pertaining to armpits

5. -eal means pertaining to
laryngeal-pertaining to larynx

6. -ic, -ical means pertaining to
cardiac-pertaining to heart
chronic-pertaining to time

7. -oid means resembling
adenoids-resembling the glands
epidermoid-resembling epidermis

8. -ose means pertaining to, full of
adipose-pertaining to full of fat

9. -ous means pertaining to
mucous-pertaining to mucus in the sticky condition

10. -tic means pertaining to
necrotic-pertaining to death of a cell or tissue

In the next lesson, we will study more important terms and disease conditions useful in medical transcription..ok

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To go to the next lesson from here please click the link below.