In the next lesson we will learn about Urinalysis.
Urinalysis is an examination to ascertain the occurrence of any abnormal chemical substances in the urine.
There are 10 types of tests are there for the urine to determine it is contaminated or infected. They are of as following:
4. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
6. Pus or Pyruia
10. Ketone bodies
Now we will see about one by one in details.
1. Color: Straw color or Amber color is the normal color of the urine. If urine contains more water then it will be colorless or wishy-washy in appearance. Abnormal urine would be of cloudy in color or may be red in color with blood. Some food or drugs we intake may change sometimes the color of the urine too that is not a consideration or abnormality.
2. Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a substance created when hemoglobin is broken down in the blood. This material may be excreted in the urine may be a symptom of gallbladder disease or liver disease. The liver is the organ in our body removes the bilirubin from the blood when blood hemoglobin broken down. So more bilirubin are accumulated in the blood. This condition is called hyperbilirubinemia. Due to this condition, more bilirubin is filtered out by the kidney from the blood and excreted more in urine. This condition of urine is called bilirubinemia.
3. pH: This test indicates whether urine is acid in nature or basic or alkaline in nature. pH is a number, which is from 0 to 14. By the number value of the urine we can whether the urine acid in nature or alkaline. If the pH value is 0 then we can say urine is more acid. If the value is 14 then we can say urine is more alkaline in nature. Normal pH value is 6.5. Urine is slightly acidic in nature normally. If urinary tract is infected by bacteria pH value will increase and urine becomes alkaline. Nitrogen is broken down more by the bacteria to create ammonia. More ammonia content makes urine more alkaline.
4. Phenylketonuria or PKU: In our body one kind of amino acid named phenylalanine must be converted into tyrosine another amino acid. To do this conversion an important hormone called phenylalanine hydroxylase is essential. When this hormone is less phenylalanine will accumulate in the blood. This condition leads to mental retardation in infants. These are ketone bodies. PKU test is an important test in infants. To prevent this affected infant must be given a low-protein diet to leave out the excess phenylalanine in the blood.
5. Protein: Normally a very less amount of protein is excreted in the urine. Due to the reason of glomerular leakage in the kidney the filtered protein are excreted more in urine. The name of that protein is albumin. This condition is called albuminuria. This condition is confirmed by a positive protein test of the urine.
Next lesson is the continuation of this lesion. OK.
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